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Empty Category Principle (ECP) Traces must be properly governed

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Empty Category Principle (ECP) Traces must be properly governed
1
Empty Category Principle (ECP)
Traces must be properly governed
α properly governs β iff
(i) α governs β and α is a lexical head
or
(ii) α antecedent-governs β.
(1)
Whoi did you say ti would fix the car?
(2) * Whoi did you say that ti would fix the car?
C′
3
C
IP
that 3
ti
I′
*
CP
3
chii
C′
3
C
G
hai
CP
3
ti′
C′
3
C
IP
che
3
ti
I′
not gov’d by a lexical head
3
not antecedent gov’d by ti′:
I
...
• ti′ binds ti
• no bounding nodes intervene
but
• there is a filled C (che) governing ti.
(2)
α antecedent-governs β iff
(i) α binds β
(ii) no more than one bounding
node dominates β but not α.
(iii) there is no filled C governing β.
(3)
2
(1)
Italian
Chi hai
detto che ha scritto questo libro?
who have-you said that has written this book
‘Who did you say wrote this book?’
3
(3)
Hanno telefonato molti studenti
have.3pl phoned many students
‘Many students have phoned.’
(4)
Vinceremo noi
will-win.1pl we
‘We will win.’
4
(7)
Howi did you say (that) he fixed your car ti ?
(8)
(5)
(6)
IP
3
proi
I′
3
I
VP
Ru
VP
DP
#
noi
ti vinceremo
pro Vinceremo noi
will-win.1pl we
‘We will win.’
Can this help?
...
CP
3
t′i
C′
3
C
IP
(that) 3
he
I′
3
VP
Ru
VP
ti
#
fixed your car
(9)
Italian
Chi hai
detto che ha scritto questo libro?
who have-you said that has written this book
‘Who did you say wrote this book?’
5
(10)
[CP Chii [IP pro hai detto [CP t′i che [IP pro ha
[VP scritto question libro] ti ]]]]
(11) CP
3
chii
C′
3
C
G
hai
CP
3
ti′
C′
3
C
IP
che
3
proj
I′
3
I
VP
Ru
VP
ti
%
tj scritto question libro
How tall will John be?
[CP how tall [C′ willj [IP John tj [VP be ...
"
1
z----m
(19)
How tall is John?
[CP how tall [C′ isj [IP John t′j [VP tj ...
"
1" 1
z----mz--m
(20) * How tall be John will?
[CP how tall [C′ bej [IP John will [VP tj ...
"
1
z----------m
Head-movement constraint (HMC)
Movement of an X° category α is restricted to the
position of a head β that governs the maximal
projection of α.
(“No skipping”)
Mario E
parla
Mario SCL speaks
‘Mario speaks.’
(13)
parla
SCL speaks
‘He speaks’
Florentine It.
E
(14) * Parla
(15)
gl
’ha telefonato della ragazze
SCL(M.SG) has phoned some girls(F.PL)
‘Some girls telephoned.’
(16)
Quante ragazze tu credi che gli abbia parlato?
how.many girls you think that M.SG has.3SG spoken
‘How many girls do you think have spoken?’
(17)
* Quante ragazze tu credi che le abbiano parlato?
how.many girls you think that F.PL have.3PL spoken
(‘How many girls do you think have spoken?’)
7
(18)
6
(12)
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