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Presentazione standard di PowerPoint
Clouds
C. Vuerli
Contributed by Zsolt Nemeth
As it started
Gartner’s Hype Cycle on
Emerging Technologies 2011
Current trends
Cloud
computing
Grid
Computing
Distributed
Computing
Gartner’s Hype Cycle on
Emerging Technologies 2012
Driving forces: commerce
• Strong industrial needs and driving forces
– Improve resource utilization
– Use available resources efficiently
– Save energy
– Decrease cost
• Consumer needs
– Cost effectiveness
– Easy access to resources
– Pay-as-you-go
– No initial investments
– Self-service
The cloud is „something”
• Provides services
– Resources, applications,
tools
– Large-scale,
heterogeneous, economic,
mobile, green
•
•
•
•
Unaware where it is
Unaware what it is actually
Unaware how it is realized
Unaware of its size
Misconcepts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Always available
Infinite resources
High performance
Minimal costs
Green infrastructure
Scalability, elasticity
Accessible
These must be relatively assessed
Real characteristics
• An economic model for resource
– Provisioning
– Management
•
•
•
•
•
Realizes utility computing
Elastic
Increased availability and reliability
Improved accessibility – ease of use
Reduced cost
Cloud characteristics
Technology
Business
Social / Legal
Other
Elasticity /
Scalability
Outsourcing
Security
Multi-tenancy
Virtualization
Pay per use
Provenance
Ease of Use
Agility &
adaptability
Resource
utilization
Privacy
Availability
Energy efficiency
Data Management Cost efficiency
Reliability
Accounting
Programmability
K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „Advances in Clouds – Research in Future
Cloud Computing”. Expert Group Report, 2012.
Relation to other areas
K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „Advances in Clouds – Research in Future Cloud Computing”. Expert Group Report, 2012.
An “official” definition
A 'cloud' is an elastic
execution environment
of resources involving
multiple stakeholders
and providing a metered
service at multiple
granularities for a
specified level of quality
(of service).
L. Schubert, K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „The Future of Cloud Computing,
Opportunities for European Cloud Computing beyond 2010”. Expert Group Report, 2010.
Another “official” definition
• Cloud computing is a model for enabling
ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network
access to a shared pool of configurable
computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,
storage, applications, and services) that can
be rapidly provisioned and released with
minimal management effort or service
provider interaction. This cloud model is
composed of five essential characteristics,
three service models, and four deployment
models.
P. Mell, T. Grance: “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing”. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication
800-145, 2011
Essential characteristics
• On-demand self-service
• A consumer can unilaterally provision
– computing capabilities
– server time
– network storage
• As needed, automatically without human
interaction
Essential characteristics
• Broad network access
• Capabilities are available over the network
– accessed through standard mechanisms
– by heterogeneous client platforms
•
•
•
•
mobile phones
Tablets
Laptops
workstations
Essential characteristics
• Resource pooling
• The provider’s resources (storage,
processing, memory, and network bandwidth)
are pooled
• serve multiple consumers
– multi-tenant model
• physical and virtual resources
– dynamically assigned and reassigned according
to consumer demand
• location independence
– but may specify location at a higher level of
abstraction
Essential characteristics
• Rapid elasticity
• Capabilities can be elastically provisioned
and released
– in some cases automatically
– scale rapidly with demand
• appear to be unlimited
Essential characteristics
• Measured service
• control and optimize resource use by
leveraging a metering capability
• Resource usage
– Monitored
– Controlled
– Reported
• providing transparency for both the
provider and consumer.
Service models: SaaS
• Software as a Service (SaaS)
• The provider’s applications running on a
cloud infrastructure.
• Accessible from various client devices
– thin client interface, such as a web browser
– program interface
• The consumer does not manage or control
the underlying cloud or even individual
application capabilities
Service models: PaaS
• Platform as a Service (PaaS).
• Deploy onto the cloud infrastructure
consumer-created or acquired applications
– created using programming languages,
libraries, services, and tools supported by the
provider.
• The consumer does not manage or control
the underlying cloud infrastructure but
– has control over the deployed applications
Service models: IaaS
• Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
• Provision processing, storage, networks,
and other fundamental computing
resources
– the consumer is able to deploy and run
arbitrary software, operating systems and
applications.
• The consumer does not manage or control
the underlying cloud infrastructure but
– has control over operating systems, storage,
and deployed applications
Virtualization
• Simulation of the hardware and software
environment in which other software runs
• Simulated environment = Virtual Machine (VM)
• Coupling between the physical layer and the
guest OS = hypervisor, virtual machine monitor
–
–
–
–
Controls flow of instructions
Partitions resources
Isolates guest OSs
Provides the interface of a real physical hardware
machine
• Guest OS + applications encapsulated = image
Virtualization
Darryl Chantry: Mapping Applications to the Cloud. Microsoft Corporation, 2009
Deployment models
• Private cloud
• The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for
exclusive use by a single organization
– comprising multiple consumers (e.g.,
business units)
Private cloud
L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models
• Community cloud
• The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for
exclusive use by a specific community of
consumers from organizations that have
shared concerns (e.g., mission, security
requirements, policy, and compliance
considerations)
Community cloud
L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models
• Public cloud
• The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for
open use by the general public
Public cloud
L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models
• Hybrid cloud
• The cloud infrastructure is a composition
of two or more distinct cloud
infrastructures (private, community, or
public)
– remain unique entities
– bound together by standardized or proprietary
technology that enables data and application
portability
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