Subject pronouns • As in English, Italian subject pronouns are divided into three groups of singular and plural forms: first person, second person, and third person. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1B.1-1 • The English you has multiple equivalents in Italian. When addressing one person, choose either tu or Lei, depending on the degree of formality necessary. Paolo, tu parli bene. Paolo, you speak well. Signor Bruno, Lei parla molto bene. Mr. Bruno, you speak very well. • Use voi to address a group of people in both formal and informal settings. The formal second-person plural form Loro is seldom used, and is presented here for recognition only. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1B.1-2 The verb essere • Essere (To be) is an irregular verb because its conjugation (the set of forms for the different subjects) does not follow a pattern. The basic form essere is an infinitive, meaning it does not correspond to any particular subject. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1B.1-3 • Rising intonation at the end of a sentence transforms a statement into a yes-or-no question. To reply in the negative, place non (not) directly before the verb. Use no only as a negative response, equivalent to no in English. È un dizionario? Is it a dictionary? No, non è un dizionario. No, it’s not a dictionary. • Note the differences in meaning in these statements. È un esame. It is an exam. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. C’è un esame. There is an exam. 1B.1-4 Ecco un esame! Here is an exam!