Presentation of Experimental Data

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Presentation of Experimental Data
Presentation of
Experimental Data
What is a Presentation
Starting the Presentation
Structure of the Presentation
Selecting and Using Visual Aids
Use of Chart and Graph
Use of Colors
We can effectively recall
20% of what we hear;
30% of what we see;
50% of what we hear and see;
70% of what we do.
• So it is clear that we must allow the
audience to see, and hear and interact
with the presenter and the presentation
A presentation must
• tell them what they need to know;
• show them as much as is necessary
• create opportunities for interaction
Some Presentations are
• Too long
• Too short
• So Keep It Short and Simple
Short and Simple presentation
• About 20 minutes (including the
introduction and the conclusion) you have
time for only two major points.
• In 30 minutes you might make three major
• In 40–45 minutes you might be able to
cover four major points, but three points
and a longer time for questions would be a
better alternative.
Presentation Time
Starting the presentation
• List of things planned to say
• The ‘keyword’ in the central box should be a one
or two word abbreviation of your primary
• Use just one or two words on each ‘limb’, even a
whole phrase if necessary – but never a
complete sentence.
• Use the full range of colours you have available.
• If different parts of the spidergram seem to link
up, indicate this fact with a linking arrow rather
than duplicating a whole set of ‘limbs’.
Creating a structure
• Make a structure to presentation. Make
understanding of the points you are making as
you go along.
• Do not try to say
• ‘which I will explain later on’ and ‘I’d like to add
some comments to something I said earlier
• Effective way to create a structure for you
presentation is to take the main points you
plotted on your spidergram
Factors considered …..
• Have I introduced the subject clearly
• Does the presentation follow a clear sequence from start to
• For ex: ‘B will depend on A, which I described earlier…’ is far better
than ‘Of course, B will depend on A, and I’ll tell you more about A in
just a minute…’
• Have you broken the information down into ‘digestible’
• Do your closing remarks genuinely wrap the presentation up
and show how everything fits together?
Selecting and using
visual aids
Visual LearningHearing
Only Visual
Films, Movies, Books- 90%
70% l( 3hrs later)
10% After Three Days
75% ( After 3hrs)
20% (after Three Days)
Visual and Verbal
85% ( after 3hrs)
66% ( After Three days)
A truly powerful and memorable presentation you will need to include some
form of visual aid.
Select the Visual Aids
• Think carefully which form of visual aid is
• Chalkboard
• Whiteboard and pen
• Flipcharts
• Overhead projector (OHP)
• Computer-based displays
Points that make a point
Three ways to express
Vocal Interest = 38 percent
Body Language = 55 percent
Verbal content = 7percent
Eye catching
Use of Chart and Graph
• Keep It Short and Simple :
If the audience does not get the message in five to ten
seconds, they’ll be watching the screen
Careful use of colours.
• Use four lines per graph at most, and use
a different colour each line.
• Line graphs are best.
• Avoid vertical labels in a line graph.
• To minimise the differences in a chart or
graph make the X axis (the base line) as
long as possible
• To maximise the differences in a chart or
graph make the vertical Y axis as long as
• In any kind of bar chart, limit each display
to six or seven bars (or groups of bars) at
the most.
• Use a vertical bar chart (with bars running
from top to bottom) to compare related
data at several points in time.
• It is sometimes quite difficult to compare
the information in different bars in a
‘stacked’ bar chart.
• So only use ‘stacked’ columns if the
precise make-up of each column is
relatively unimportant, otherwise groups of
adjacent bars are more effective.
• When using a histogram always arrange
the bars in ascending or descending order
of magnitude, not in alphabetical order.
• A pie chart is often the best way of
illustrating the relative values
Always put the labels for a pie chart outside the chart.
Keep pie charts down to a maximum of six or seven wedges.
Use a ‘floating wedge’ when you want to focus attention on that particular
section of the pie
Using colours
Color for text-No rainbow effect.
Two Or three colors in single display is fine
More than three- Excessive ( 5 or more Mind Boggling)
Use same color code
• For: Black for text
• Red for keyword
• Blue for secondary text
Always remember that red and green are the two colours most
frequently involved in cases of colour blindness
It is a good idea to avoid these two colours when you want to
emphasise a difference or a comparison.
Color selection
• RED Color: emphasise.
• A bright, warm yellow - for attracting attention
[royal blue, dark Green background] [sunshine,
summer, warmth].
• Dark blue - desire for relaxation [explain
unimportant items]
• Light blue, like yellow - positive connotations
linked to clear skies, sunny days
• Andrew Bradbury Successful Presentation
Skills, 3rd edition , KOGAN PAGE, London
and Philadelphia.
• Tom Negrino Creating Presentation in
Powerpoint, Peachpit Press, Berkeley
• Sherron Bienvenu, The Presentation Skills
Workshop, AMACON, New York.
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