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Notes on the Iconography of Adam under Calvary

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Notes on the Iconography of Adam under Calvary
17
series
essays SBF - Jerusalem 2007
PONTIFICIA UNIVERSITAS
ANTONIANUM
Facultas Scientiarum Biblicarum
et Archaeologiae
STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM
Notes on the Iconography
of Adam under Calvary
By Fr. Bellarmino Bagatti OFM
First published in Liber Annuus 27 (1977) 5-32; Pls. 1-12
Translated from the Italian into English by Jacob Zreineh,
Dragoman Emeritus of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
(Edited by: S. Traynor-Moravska and E. Alliata).
-1-
On studying the various encyclopedia1 and dictionaries of Christian Art and
Antiquities 2 no mention can be found of
the iconography of Adam under Calvary,
although this theme has been developed not
only in the writings of the Church Fathers
but was also represented in art. For this
reason I decided to make a study of this art.
to see how such iconography originated and
developed. Clearly, it is not my intention to
go very deep into the subject, as this could
only be done in centres better furnished in
books of art than can be found in Jerusalem;
my intention is only to indicate the various
types in the composition of the theme.
Observations which I here present come
from a direct sighting of the works of art
or from photographic reproductions, as is
more often the case. By mischance all the
reproductions are not clear enough to distinguish the special details shown in these
works of art.
As the iconography is based on tradition
and literary texts it should be useful to give
some brief notes on these texts.
Fig. 1 Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher. Chapel of Adam.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Basic doctrine in connection with
the iconography concerned
The principal reason for the idea that Adam was buried under Calvary is due to the topographic denomination
given to the hill on which The Lord was crucified.
Bellarmino Bagatti, ofm
(1905-1990).
Since 1935 he has held
a chair at the “Studium
Biblicum Franciscanum”
in Jerusalem, teaching
Christian archeology and
topography of Jerusalem.
From 1968-1978 he was
the director of the Studium.
Under his guidance the Institute widened the scope of
its course offerings and its
activities and also added to
the number of its teachers
and students.
In November 9, 2002 the
Aula Magna of the SBF
(now Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology) was dedicated to his
memory..
•
-2-
Golgotha in Aramaic/Hebrew
Calvarium in Latin
Kefalaion in Greek
“Skull” in English (Place of the Skull)
It appears already in the first century because it is mentioned by the Evangelists as a known fact. St. Luke
(23:33) writes about it: “And they came to the place (tovpo") called the skull (Kranivou) and crucified Him”. St.
John (19:17) “And they went out to the place (tovpon) called the skull (Kranivon), which in Hebrew is called
ʻGolgothaʼ (Golgoqa') ”.
The name “Calvary” remains till our day, As an example it is mentioned in the Letter of the Apostles written
in the 2nd century and the meaning is clear enough as it also includes the Tomb of Christ. In the Testamentum
Salomonis used by Christians of Hebrew origin in the pre-Constantinian period3 we read that the devil told
Solomon that he (the devil) would be vanquished when the Angel of Great Counsel was suspended on a tree “in
a place named Kefalaion (Kefavlaion, “skull”).”
Judaeo-Christian traditions
The name “Angel of Great Counsel” is used in the Testamentum to mean Jesus. It should be understood that
this is a Judaeo-Christian document which can be either an original composition or an addition. Angel of Great
Council is an idiom found in the writings of authors of Jewish background. In fact the tradition that Adam lived
in the area of Calvary and was buried in this place, is of Judaeo-Christian origin. Origen in a Commentary on
Matthew4 in the year 246 A.D. states: “venit ad me traditio quaemdam talis quod corpus Adae, primi hominis, ibi
sepultum est ubi crucifixus est Christus”.
It can be deduced that the person who related this tradition to Origen was a Christian of Jewish origin, according to the words of an anonymous author named Pseudo-Athanasius:5 “Non alibi patitur, non alio loco cruci
affigitur, quam in Calvariae loco, quem Hebraeorum magistri aiunt fuisse Adami sepulcrum”. Jews who did not
believe in Christ held to the tradition that Adam was buried in Hebron.6 Some of the Jewish Rabbis were believers
in Christ. However, especially in this period it was not admitted by the Rabbis that they took any interest whatsoever in keeping up the tradition of a Christian place. Christians of Greek culture considered this tradition to be
entirely Jewish as appears early in some writers, e.g., Basileus of Seleucia,7 who refuted it as “cabala hebraica”.
Only Christians of Jewish origin formed the theology of this idea applying it to the place of Calvary and the fact
is that until the year 135 A.D. they were the main representatives of Christianity
Regarding the Combat of Adam,8 Origen speaks to us of a “tradition” and this can be found in ideas included
in this well-known story. These ideas were tied to pre-Nicean theology though the composition of the text we
possess is more recent. In relation to our subject we stress two points considered as prophecies: 1) that the body
of Adam will be transferred to Golgotha and 2) that he will receive redemption when the Blood of Christ descends
on his head.
Calvary and the Chapel of Adam
At the time Origen dictated his comments, Calvary was buried under or included in the great building of the
Temple of Venus erected in 135 A.D. by Emperor Hadrian.9 About 333 A.D. Calvary was uncovered and “iussu
Constantini”, as stated by the anonymous pilgrim of Bordeaux, was included in the great new building called
“The Holy Sepulchre”. Of the original state of the place or theological souvenirs,10 very little remained because
Calvary and the Sepulchre of Christ were specially adapted for great liturgical ceremonies. From what we may
gather from the minute descriptions of pilgrims, especially Egeria11 and Arculf,12 nothing remained in monumental
form to record Adam. This is explained by the fact that building work was carried out by architects not native
to the country who had a mentality very different from the Christians of Jewish origin who had elaborated the
theology of the place of Crucifixion.
In 614 and 638 A.D. there followed the invasions of the Persians and later the Arabs. After this came the
iconoclast problems and the mentality was now different than that of the Constantinian architects of the Holy
Sepulchre. Already in the 6th century it had been said that Adam was created in this area13 and the monk Epiphanius
who wrote in the 8/9th century assures us that, for the first time,14 there existed a cenotaph of Adam under Calvary:
“Near the Sepulchre there is the Place of Calvary (o{ tovpo" tou' Kranivou) where Christ was nailed to the Cross
at a height of 36 steps. Under the place of Crucifixion there is a Chapel of Adam and his tomb (oJ tavfo")”. That
this church was of a much later epoch than the Constantinian building was verified after restorations were carried
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
The STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM of
Jerusalem (SBF) is
the Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology
of the Pontificia
Universitas Antonianum
in Rome. In 1901, the
Franciscan Custody of the
Holy Land began planning
a center for biblical
studies in Jerusalem
and these plans led to
the establishment of the
SBF in 1924. Located in
Jerusalemʼs Old City, the
SBF offers degree and
non-degree programs
of studies in biblical
interpretation and in
archaeology. Associated
with the SBF is the
Studium Theologicum
Jerosolymitanum, the
Custody of the Holy Landʼs
school of theology.
•
-3-
out in the complex (Fig. 1). Under Calvary in Adamʼs Chapel, the apse may be seen built of bricks, denoting a
later epoch. These materials were also used by the builders employed by the Emperor Constantine Monomacus
who restored the Holy Sepulchre in the 11th century.15 Whether or not this is the first ecclesiastical building at
the site is of no significance. A characteristic fact is that the builders always kept in view the crack in the rock,
which fact greatly impressed pilgrims of the Medieval Age. To this crack in the rock a theology had been formed
according to the way of the ancients.
There is a statement by the pilgrim Sewulf16 who, at the beginning of the reign of the Crusaders, (1102-3)
wrote: “Under Calvary there is the place of Golgotha where it is said that Adam, bathed by the Blood of the
Lord, was resuscitated”. The Russian Abbot, Daniel,17 who came to the Holy Land soon after (1106-7), described
Calvary with an aperture kept uncovered wherein the Cross was planted and after he says: “Under this rock the
skull of the first man lay … the rock was opened above the skull of Adam and the Blood and Water which flowed
from the side of Christ ran through this crack and washed away the sins of men”. The theme of salvation and the
Blood of Christ attached to this crack in the rock was repeated throughout the Middle Ages.
The Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Though theological ideas had been developed from the dawn of Christianity it appears that iconography began
much later, first because the Judeo-Christians did not use images and secondly because the plan of Calvary made
in the 14th century had negative repercussions in the Christian world. Another factor which contributed to the
introduction of iconography in later epochs was the theological form of Christian dogma under the influence of
Greek philosophy. Thus, iconography suffered the same fate as the Koimesis, the Anastasis and the representations of Jesus-Logos.18
The iconography of Adam is expressed under various aspects: a) with the skull of Adam on Calvary in the
forefront, b) the same skull bathed by the Sacred Blood, c) with Adam depicted lying in the tomb waiting for
redemption, praying, or collecting the Sacred Blood. The different types are kept here separate because they illustrate the base of various theological ideas.
The Skull of Adam under Calvary
This motif is simple and more ancient. In general it is associated with the Crucifixion of the Lord but sometimes with the Deposition (Taking down from the Cross). Regarding the Crucifixion, the first example known to
us is a bronze crucifix in the Museum of Art of Providence on Rhode Island (Fig. 2) which is said to have been
brought from Jerusalem. Jesus is shown wearing the colobium which descends from the chest to the feet. At the
top the Cross bears a tablet with the letters IÇ; At the bottom it shows the suppedaneum highly developed in the
form of a small box. Two big pieces of wood support the Cross on Calvary together with a small head of Adam.
At the side of the latter is a Greek inscription: TOPOS KRANHOU. On the arms of the Cross are the words of
the Gospel of St. John (19:27-28) in Greek: “Mother behold your son, Son behold your mother”. The motif of
Adam is hardly visible.
The first illustrations of the Cross were dated to the 6th century, though a later study of E. Lucchesi Palli,19
comparing it with other similar works, put the date not earlier than
the 8/9th century. Such confrontations are made with regard to similar
compositions, especially the Reliquary of Vicopisani and that of Fieschi Morgan. These reliquaries show the image of Christ wearing a tall
and narrow colobium. The Cross
of Vicopisanii
is dated about
the 9th century
and probably the
same date must
be assigned to the
Cross of Providence.
Another reason for not placing the latter in
a more ancient
epoch is a comparison with a
reliquary kept in
the Museum of
Sacred Art. in the
Vatican20 (Fig. 3)
Fig. 2 Providence.
Fig. 3 Vatican.
essays - SBF
17
Fig. 4a-b Crucifix of Sozio.
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Research Center.
While the SBF supports
research and publication
in all areas of biblical studies, a particular
focus has been on the
archaeological excavation
of sites associated with
the New Testament and
early Christianity in the
Middle East. The SBF also
carries of the tradition of
the Franciscans who have
helped write the history of
the Christian shrines and
places of pilgrimage in
the Middle East through
archaeological excavation
and the study of Jewish
and Christian literary
sources including pilgrimsʼ
diaries.
which depicts a Crucifixion scene on the upper part of
the cover which is very similar to that of Providence.
Christ wears the long colobium; the title of the cross
is as usual ICXC. The figures of Mary and John stand
at the side and there are circles of the sun and moon.
The cross is planted on three nails and is supported by the head of Adam which is vaguely visible. For this reason
the composition of the two works does not seem to have been very ancient. Grisar and Laurent who illustrated
the Vatican Reliquary which had been in use at the Lateran, and Volbach who wrote much later, donʼt place this
latter work earlier than the 12th century.
Other known works, however, which bear the motif of the skull of Adam seem to have been executed much
later than the 6th century. In fact the Reliquary Cross in the Victoria and Albert Museum21 in London is believed to
be of the 9th century and appears to be one of the more ancient. In the centre is the Crucifix, at the sides half-busts
of Mary and John and at the bottom the skull of Adam. On the other side of the Reliquary the Virgin is depicted
in a position of prayer and half-busts of saints are also shown.
Between the years 973-983 a Gospel Book was presented to the Monastery of Echternach22 by Ottone II and
Theophania, on the cover of which the Crucifixion is represented with Longinus who pierced the side of the Lord
with a lance and another soldier is shown raising the sponge soaked with vinegar. The skull of Adam is placed
in the support of the cross and is seen in the forefront. This work is the first which possesses a precise date.
Schlumberger23 illustrated a reliquary covered with metal belonging to Count Stroganoff who thought it made at
the beginning of the 10th or 11th century. It is of Byzantine work with inscriptions in Greek. The Crucified wears
the perizoma and the skull of Adam is shown under Calvary.
•
-4-
Fig. 5 Salonika.
Fig. 6 Venice.
essays - SBF
17
Fig. 7a-b Patena di Halberstadt.
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Academic Center.
The SBF is a pontifical
faculty that offers courses
leading to both the
licentiate (S.S.L.) and the
doctoral (S.S.D.) degrees
in Biblical Studies and
Archaeology. The program
of studies leading to the
licentiate includes two
semesters of introductory
studies and five regular
semesters. The program
of studies leading to the
doctoral degree requires
four additional semesters
and the writing of a dissertation.
Other programs of studies lead to diplomas in
Oriental Biblical Studies
and Archaeology and in
Biblical Formation.
•
-5-
A Paten belonging to the Treasury of Halberstadt
(Fig. 7) was tought to belong to the 10th century or the
beginning of the 11th . This Paten is believed to have
been used for the Liturgy.24 The plate is ornamented
with lobs and in the outer circle are figures of the
saints. The inscription is in Greek and the Crucifixion
is depicted with Mary, John and two angels on high.
The skull of Adam is at the bottom near the Cross but Calvary is not shown. Behind are three nails supporting
the Cross. Two works kept in Venice25 are both of Byzantine execution. The first (Fig. 6) is a binding for a Book
of the Gospels with the Crucifixion scene in silver, and below the support of the Cross Calvary is shown with
the skull of Adam. Inscriptions are in Greek. The second, almost similar, is a cover for a reliquary in which was
kept a fragment of the True Cross. Also here are the usual figures of Mary and John at the side of the Cross with
angels on high. The inscriptions are in Greek. The Cross is supported by two pieces of wood and a small Calvary
shows the skull of Adam in the forefront. The difference between the two skulls shown in these works is that the
first skull is shown upright but almost lying and the second is in an upright position but without the neck.
Another Reliquary of the Holy Cross, painted and held to be of the 11th century is found in the Vatican Museum26
and had been used in the Sancta Sanctorum of the Lateran. On one side is the Crucifixion scene on Calvary with Mary
and John and the skull of Adam below, placed upright. On the other side are figures of Jesus, Mary, the Apostles
Peter and Paul and two angels. The date suggested by P. Grisar is the 11th century. Inscriptions are in Greek.
At the Vatican27 itself is kept a Greek Codex which has six scenes relating to the Passion of Christ, one of
which depicts the Crucifixion. The scenes are related to the Liturgy for Holy Week. There are various persons
around the Cross and a building in the background. Calvary is shown rather small and the skull of Adam stands
upright in the foreground.
In the l2th century we also find the subject portrayed on small objects. There is a piece of gold in St. Markʼs,
Venice28 bearing the Crucifixion scene with Mary and John. The Cross is planted on a small Calvary where the skull of
Adam lies in a niche. The inscription referring to Jesus is in Greek but there is also a Latin inscription at the top.
It is believed that the Reliquary of Brescia29 was made by a Byzantine artist. This shows the Crucifixion scene
with the skull of Adam. Calvary is rocky and the Cross held by three supports. On the other side of the reliquary
are two saints with the Holy Cross in the centre.
The gold enamelled Reliquary of Salonika (Fig. 5)30 is dated 12/13th century. It depicts the Crucifixion with
the skull of Adam inside a small Calvary. The Greek inscription above reads: “Jesus Christ, King of Glory”. It
is known that this phrase is in relation to the so-called Gospel of Nicodemus in the “Descent to Hell” and the
liberation of Adam. The miniature of the Exultet belonging to the Dome of Velletri31 is dated to the 11th century. It
depicts the Crucifixion with the Cross fixed to Calvary by three supports. Jesus has His feet resting on the support
The skull of Adam is shown inside Calvary.
For the first time we meet now larger works. The windows of the French cathedrals of Sens and Rouen are
mentioned by E. Mâle32. In Italy there is a crucifix painted by Albertus Iotti, as he signs himself, or Sozio (Fig. 4).
It is kept in Spoleto.33 The side wings of the crucifix are reduced in proportion, Mary and John standing by and
the skull of Adam is shown below. At the bottom is the signature of the artist. The work is thought to be of 1174 or
1187 A.D. The aspect of Christ is “triumphant” and bears no sign of suffering. He wears the perizoma. Behind is an
icon of the Holy Face, kept in the Tretyakov Museum, Moscow. A cross without the figure is shown with a crown
of thorns and angels in prayer. The cross is planted on Calvary where the skull of Adam is seen. The icon is dated
12th century.34 A fresco of the 13th century (Fig. 8) is found in the church of the Virgin in Studenica35 belonging to
the year 1208/9. Near the Crucifix are Mary and John with other figures. The skull of Adam lies under Calvary.
The mosaic of the Crucifixion in the Basilica of St. Markʼs, Venice36 is also attributed to the 13th century.
Below the Cross is the hill of Calvary with the skull of Adam in the forefront. Soldiers are shown at the scene
as illustrated in the Codex of Rabbula 4/5th century (Fig. 12). Orlandos37 places an icon of Rhodes in this period
essays - SBF
17
SantʼAntonio lʼEgiziano nel deserto
Il Museo
Annesso allo SBF si
trova il Museo , fondato
nel 1902, dove vengono
esposti i reperti più
significativi degli scavi
archeologici dello SBF.
Strutturato in funzione didattica per gli
studenti e i pellegrini,
comprende sale che illustrano rispettivamente
gli scavi di Nazaret,
di Cafarnao e del
“Dominus Flevit”, delle
fortezze dellʼHerodion
e di Macheronte e dei
monasteri del Deserto di
Giuda.
•
-6-
Fig. 8 Studenica.
(1289/1290) in the Church of St. George in Bardaz
made in the reign of King Andronicus who ruled from
1282 to 1328. The author makes particular mention of
Fig. 9 Ochrida.
the skull of Adam shown on the icon.
In Bulgaria38 is a fresco in the Church of St. Michael and Pantaleimon of Bojana, a short distance from Sofia. It
belongs to the year 1259. The skull of Adam on Calvary is not shown upright but lying down as if in the tomb.
In Italy the motif is found in an illuminated missal kept in the Duomo of Salerno,39 probably by an artist from Florence. At the sides of the cross are Mary and John and below Calvary the skull of Adam can just be discerned. In France
a work in enamel made in Limoges is kept at Bordeaux.40 It depicts the Crucifixion and at the foot of the cross is the
skull of Adam (Fig. 11). The inscriptions are in Latin. The same motif is found on the metallic cover worked in silver
of a Gospel Book in Syriac, mentioned by Baumstark41 and dated 1221/2. The skull is depicted under Calvary.
In Serbia another cover is recorded worked in silver of the 13th or 14th century (Fig. 9). It is kept in the Church
of St. Clement in Ochrida.42 The cross is attached to Calvary with three supports and Calvary has an opening large
enough for the skull of Adam to lie. Mary and John stand on each side of the cross and at the corners various saints
are depicted. In the background can be seen certain buildings. The inscriptions are in Greek.
We should also mention the drawing made by St. Francis (Fig. 10) in 1224 on a parchment, for his companion
Bro. Leone. He invokes a blessing on him using biblical phrases accompanied by a “T” and, lower down, the head
of Adam under Calvary. Bro. Leone wrote on the above mentioned parchment which is kept in Assisi: “Beatus
Franciscus scripsit manu sua istam benedictionem mihi fratri Leoni. Et sinili modo fecit istud signum Thau cum
capite manu sua”.43 This parchment is similar to the
Crib of Greccio by Francis and is a product of impressions received in the Holy Land. St. Bonaventure
assures us in the Life of St. Francis that the saint had
a great veneration for the symbol of the Thau and
usually signed it with his own hand.
In the 14th century the motif was adapted by several Italian artists in pictures and inscriptions. A composition of primary note is that of Giotto in the Chapel
of the Scrovegni in Padova.44 The scene is dramatised
and Magdalen leans on the cross to kiss the feet of the
Redeemer. Various people stand at the side of the cross
and the angels are shown collecting the Sacred Blood
in vessels. The rock of Calvary has a small opening in-
Fig. 10a-b S. Francis.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
The STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM of
Jerusalem (SBF) is
the Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology
of the Pontificia
Universitas Antonianum
in Rome. In 1901, the
Franciscan Custody of the
Holy Land began planning
a center for biblical
studies in Jerusalem
and these plans led to
the establishment of the
SBF in 1924. Located in
Jerusalemʼs Old City, the
SBF offers degree and
non-degree programs
of studies in biblical
interpretation and in
archaeology. Associated
with the SBF is the
Studium Theologicum
Jerosolymitanum, the
Custody of the Holy Landʼs
school of theology.
•
-7-
side of which is the skull of Adam. Duccio di Buoninsegna45 in a picture kept
in Boston shows the Crucifixion Surrounded by many people and angels
who collect the Sacred Blood. On the rock of Calvary, between the cracks,
the skull of Adam is shown looking upwards with the tibias nearby. Here, as
in Giotto, the sorrow of Mary is emphasized and the scene is very animated.
The same is found in a picture by the same painter kept in London.
Of the Siennese school, Segna di Buonaventura46 depicts the Crucifixion
with the two thieves and many other people present at the scene. Calvary
is bare and rocky and at the bottom, in front of an opening, is the skull of
Adam looking to the right with two sidebones. They also appeared previously in the composition of Giotto. The scene is animated and the angels
also take part. To these compositions may be added the windows attributed
to Giovanni di Bonino47 in the Gallery of Perugia. Mary and John stand on
each side of the cross and the skull of Adam is shown under Calvary.
Among other pictures of the period with the Adam motif can be seen a
Fig. 11 Limoges.
work of Barnaba of Modena48 in the Gallery of Modena. Magdalen embraces
the feet of Jesus, on each side are Mary and John and the
skull of Adam is shown at the foot of the cross.
With regard to sculpture, we may mention that of
Giovanni di Balduccio49 in the year 1347 and the basrelief of the Magi in the Basilica of St. Eustachius in Milan. Above all there is the Crucifixion by Nicolo Pisano50
in the Pulpit of Siena and the “Deposition” at Lucca. The
skull is turned upward (Fig. 13) as if looking at Jesus on
the cross. The composition of the Pulpit of Pisa (Fig.
14) shows the same motif but the skull is in an upright
position. Giovanni Pisano51 on the Pulpit of Pistoia, also
depicts the skull as if looking upwards.
A sculpture from Pavia found in the Church of St.
Michael presents the Crucifixion scene with Mary and John
with the skull shown under Calvary.52 An anonymous artist
from Tuscany on an ornate processional Crucifix53 places a
Fig. 12 Venezia.
pelican in the upper part inside a chalice. Mary and John
are shown on each side and lower down in the centre is
the rock of Calvary with the skull crowned (Fig. 34).
In Portugal,54 in the Museum of Crao-Vasco Viseu,
is a Crucifix in polychrome alabaster with the figure
of Christ on the cross and at the sides Mary and John.
Under Calvary is a large skull.
In the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem a silver
cover is kept which was made by the Deacon Ohanne
in 1334.55 The apostles are shown and below the cross
of Calvary the skull of Adam is depicted.
A miniature of “Te igitur”, in a missal used for the
coronation of Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1395,56 and
now kept in the Ambrosiana, Milan, depicts the Crucifixion scene with Mary, John and Magdalen; angels
hold chalices to collect the Blood of Christ and under
Calvary is the skull of Adam. Between the 14 th and
Fig. 13 Nicolò Pisano. Siena.
15th centuries an anonymous painter of
Udine represented the tree of the cross
in the church of St. Francis,57 with the
Crucifixion scene and under Calvary the
head of Adam is shown bent down. In the
15th century and especially in the 16th the
skull is often depicted in pictures but is
not always shown in close relation to the
cross. Sometimes it is only placed beside
the cross or placed, at a distance. Often
Calvary is omitted altogether.
To mention some Italian works:
There is a window in Milan Cathedral58
showing the Crucifixion with the skull
of Adam placed at the foot of the cross.
Several painters have used the motif of
Fig. 14 Nicolò Pisano. Siena.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Research Center.
While the SBF supports
research and publication
in all areas of biblical studies, a particular
focus has been on the
archaeological excavation
of sites associated with
the New Testament and
early Christianity in the
Middle East. The SBF also
carries of the tradition of
the Franciscans who have
helped write the history of
the Christian shrines and
places of pilgrimage in
the Middle East through
archaeological excavation
and the study of Jewish
and Christian literary
sources including pilgrimsʼ
diaries.
•
-8-
Fig. 15a-b Simone Martini.
the skull of Adam. Andrea del Castagno59 in St. Apollonia
represents the Crucifixion with various saints and Calvary
with the skull of Adam and crossed tibiae. This picture is
dated 1456. Neri di Bicci used this motif in a painting of
the Annunciation in the Galleria dellʼAccademia at Florence from the year 1464.60 Blessed Angelico61 in the large
fresco of St Markʼs dated 1437-45, shows the Crucifixion with the head of Adam placed at the foot of the cross.
The same is depicted in a fresco on the wall of a small cell which was painted in the same period. The Crucifixion
scene shows only four persons: Mary, John and two Dominican saints. The skull is below and Christʼs precious
blood flows from the cross in streams but not on to the skull of Adam.
Mantegnaʼs picture,62 at the Louvre, depicts many people at the scene of the Crucifixion as well as the two
thieves, and the skull of Adam at the foot of the Cross, which is held up by stones as it stands on a pavement.
The Sacred Blood flows down the wood of the cross but it does not appear that the artist wished to place it in
relation to Adam. He shows the skull lower down at the foot of the cross at an angle. This painting is shown in
the church of St. Zeno in Verona.63 In the refectory of the Abbey of Praglia,64 B. Montagna in the years 1490/95,
represented the Crucifixion with Mary, John and Magdalen and down below the skull is placed turned up on one
side. A. Bergognone in the Certosa of Pavia65 placed the skull near the crucifix. In 1498, in the Church of St.
Bernardino, Verona,66 Domenico Morone represented
the Crucifixion under an arch of the rinascimento
epoch, with Mary and John. He shows the skull of
Adam at the foot of the cross in an upright position.
Pesellino in a picture kept at the Friederich Museum,
Fig. 16 Tryakov.
Fig. 17 Nardo di Cione.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Academic Center.
The SBF is a pontifical
faculty that offers courses
leading to both the
licentiate (S.S.L.) and the
doctoral (S.S.D.) degrees
in Biblical Studies and
Archaeology. The program
of studies leading to the
licentiate includes two
semesters of introductory
studies and five regular
semesters. The program
of studies leading to the
doctoral degree requires
four additional semesters
and the writing of a dissertation.
Other programs of studies lead to diplomas in
Oriental Biblical Studies
and Archaeology and in
Biblical Formation.
•
-9-
Berlin,67 shows the skull with the tibia but outside
Calvary. Antonello of Messina in a well known picture
of the Crucifixion kept at Anvers,68 and showing the
two thieves, placed not one but several skulls near the
cross. He did the same in a picture now kept in the
National Gallery, London. Jacopino Caetano, in 1460,
made a tryptic on glass with the figures in gold69 and
in the Crucifixion scene he depicted Mary, John and
Magdalen with the skull of Adam at the bottom.
The motif is found on ornaments such as those
of Attavante of 148370 and in another attributed to
Perugino;71 There is also one in the Vatican of 1495.72
In a xylography of a missal of 1492,73 the same scene
shows the skull with the tibia placed in the mouth.
Among Italian sculptures with this motif, that of Niccolo Baroncelli74 may be mentioned in the Dome of
Ferrara and of Della Robia in the Church of St. Mary
in Fiesole.75 There is also a Crucifix from Tuscany76
which has four lobs under the feet of the Lord with
Calvary and the head of Adam shown bowed down to
one side (Fig. 33). Another similar one of Castilenti77
in the Abruzzo is a Reliquary with a Relief of the
Crucifixion in the Sanctuary of St. Mary del Monte
Sopra Varese, executed by an anonymous artist from
Lombardy.78 Mention should also be made of an embroidery kept in Paris.79
Among artists of the North may be mentioned the
work of Mathis Gothardt Neitbardt,80 showing the skull
at the foot of the cross and a Crucifixion of the School
of Cologne81 of 1400 where the skull is shown near
but not beside the cross and three angels collect the
Blood of Christ which flows from the Hands and Side.
Ugo van Goes82 1467-82 in a picture from the Correr
Museum in Venice, shows the skull with a tibia nearby.
H. Hammerer83 in the Cathedral of Strasburg, Gerard
David84 (1460-1523) in a picture at the Palazzo Bianco
in Genova (Fig. 42), depicts two skulls and one tibia.
Roger Van der Weyden85 on a panel of 1458 painted
a crucifixion scene with the skull of Adam and a tibia
near the cross. An anonymous artist painted a tryptic
kept in Burgos86 and another anonymous artist in Bruges
about the year 1400 painted a picture with the same motif
which is now kept in the museum of Saint-Sauveur.87
Oriental works which continue to depict the same theme
include a picture above the altar of Pyrga on the island of
Cyprus88 in the Chapel of the Passion, dated to the year 1421.
We know of the existence of a crucifix (Fig. 39) used by St.
James della Marca,89 who died in 1476, which reveals that
the skull of Adam had already been given a meaning which
differed from the previous ones. This is found in a reproduction showing Calvary below the cross, above there are three
nails, on the left is the famous cock and at the right nails with
the tibiae below. Probably the skull which is painted and
shown near the cross has the same aim in this century (15th)
of recording the
Passion of Christ.
Sometimes the
skull of Adam appears geometric
(Fig. 41) and looks
like a drawing for
example, as shown
in an icon of the 15th
century in the Museum of Novogrod.90
Fig. 20a-b Syrian ms.
Fig. 18a-b Phocis.
Fig. 19 Dafni.
essays - SBF
17
SantʼAntonio lʼEgiziano nel deserto
Il Museo
Annesso allo SBF si
trova il Museo , fondato
nel 1902, dove vengono
esposti i reperti più
significativi degli scavi
archeologici dello SBF.
Strutturato in funzione didattica per gli
studenti e i pellegrini,
comprende sale che illustrano rispettivamente
gli scavi di Nazaret,
di Cafarnao e del
“Dominus Flevit”, delle
fortezze dellʼHerodion
e di Macheronte e dei
monasteri del Deserto di
Giuda.
•
In the 16th century artists continue to represent the
skull but often without any strict relation to Calvary.
Among Oriental artists there is an anonymous one who
painted a fairly animated crucifixion scene in the church
of Panaghia Podithou in Galata91 in 1502. The skull has
two crossed tibiae. A pupil of Dionysius in 1500 shows
this motif in a picture in the Gallery of Tretyakov,92 Moscow and there is an icon of 1520 kept in the Monastery
of Kykkos93 in Cyprus. Many other Italian artists and
sculptors could be mentioned including Michelangelo
who made a drawing for Vittoria Colonna in 1540.
Among the Italian painters is Bartolo Donati in
Venice94; Fra Bartolomeo della Porta in San Marco95;
Spanzotti in the Monastery of San Bernardino at Ivrea96;
Luini in the church od S. Maria degli Angeli in Lugano97;
Bastianini in a painting of St. Jerome98; Bramentino99
in a painting attributed to his hand; Signorelli100; Michelangelo101 in a drawing executed in 1540 for Vittoria
Colonna; etc.
Among the Italian sculptors is Giovanni di Nola102
Fig. 21 Cosimo Rosselli.
of 1534 whose work is kept in S. Giovanni Maggiore,
Naples. In Spain, there is the high altar of the Royal Chapel of Granada, executed by Philip de Vigarny.103 A
tryptic in enamel is also kept here.104
The Deposition or Taking down from the Cross. This subject could be considered as an extension of the
theme of the Crucifixion. Examples are naturally less numerous than the latter theme. On the reliquary of the
Holy Cross at Grau or Estergom in Hungary,105 the Descent from the Cross is shown with Calvary and the skull
below. Inscriptions are in Greek and the work is dated to the 11th century. In the centre there is a relic of the Holy
Cross and at the sides the figures of Constantine and St. Helena.
In the 13th century (1260/70)
a page of the Gospels of Iviron106
on Mount Athos was decorated
with the scene of the Deposition
showing various persons and the
skull of Adam.
There is a picture from the
end of the 13th century in the collection of Stoclet,107 Brussells,
which is of Greek style and shows
the same motif. As usual, the ladder used in the descent of the
Body of Jesus is attached to the
arms of the Cross. There are five
persons depicted in the scene.
The motif is also developed by the painter Duccio di
Fig. 22 Paris.
Buoninsegna108 (1250-1312) in
th
a picture in the Museum dellʼOpera in Siena; by an anonymous artist of the 15 century called “Maestro della
Flemaille”, from Varese109 another by Van der Weyden in a picture at the Museum of Prado in Madrid,110 and one
in Brussells111 painted by Gilardoni. There is also an icon (Fig. 16) by a Russian anonymous artist in the Tryakov
Museum, Moscow;112 by a Greek in Castoria113 and by a German artist known as Maestro di San Bartolomeo114 in
a picture painted between 1480 and 1510. In the communal museum of Bruges can be found a picture by Pierre
Pourbus115 of 1570.
The Blood of Christ which bathes Adam
- 10 -
This idea is expressed in
the Combat of Adam and put
in the mouth of the Lord when
he promised the redemption of
Adam: “On the day in which
my blood shall descend on your
head in the place of Golgotha,
as my blood will be the true
water of life for you and not
only for you but for all your
Fig. 23 Philip Goul.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
The STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM of
Jerusalem (SBF) is
the Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology
of the Pontificia
Universitas Antonianum
in Rome. In 1901, the
Franciscan Custody of the
Holy Land began planning
a center for biblical
studies in Jerusalem
and these plans led to
the establishment of the
SBF in 1924. Located in
Jerusalemʼs Old City, the
SBF offers degree and
non-degree programs
of studies in biblical
interpretation and in
archaeology. Associated
with the SBF is the
Studium Theologicum
Jerosolymitanum, the
Custody of the Holy Landʼs
school of theology.
•
descendants who will believe in Me and who will obtain
rest and eternal life”.116
The motif may seem picturesque but in reality it
contains a very deep theological meaning because for
the Semites, blood contains life. By blood vital contacts
were established between those making an agreement or
contract and blood also had an expiatory character, such
as is recorded in the Letter to the Hebrews (2,13; 9,14 etc)
and the Apocalypse.
In Medieval times, guides in Jerusalem used to show
pilgrims the crack in the rock of Calvary from which flowed
the Sacred Blood, bathing the skull of Adam. This idea also
clearly appears in the works of Sewulf and the Abbot Daniel
and other pilgrims who came to visit the Holy Places, such
as Theodoric.117 Probably this idea was developed when
the chapel was built and an empty space was left in front
of the crack in the rock so that the devout could see where
the Sacred Blood had flowed. However, I am of the opinion
that the iconographic motif was developed after alterations
were made on Calvary itself.
The most moving example of the Blood of Christ flowing on to the head of Adam is the mosaic in the Monastery
of St. Luke in Focide118 (Fig. 18), executed in the 11th
century. The Crucifixion scene shows the body of Christ
suffering, with the hands, feet and side full of blood which
flows from the feet forming small streams and bathes the
skull below Calvary.
About the year 1100 this subject was repeated in the
wellknown mosaic of Daphne (Fig. 19),119 a locality not
far from Athens, but here it was developed further. The
Blood not only flows on to the head but clearly forms the
shape of a cross. The theology of the Cross of Salvation
was developed as a ʻsignʼ well known in ancient Christian
literature.120
In the following century the Blood of Redemption appears in a Byzantine miniature found in Paris121 (Fig. 22).
The codex, written in Greek and Latin seems of southItalian origin. As usual the skull is below inside
Calvary and is bathed by the Sacred Blood. According to Mâle the 13th century windows of Angers
and Beauvais show the motif of the Sacred Blood
Adam and Eve receive the Blood which flows
from the cross. There exists a Syrian miniature of
Fig. 24 Vechselbourg.
Fig. 25 Tournai.
- 11 -
Fig. 27-28 Egyptian scuptures.
Fig. 26 Medieval illumination.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Research Center.
While the SBF supports
research and publication
in all areas of biblical studies, a particular
focus has been on the
archaeological excavation
of sites associated with
the New Testament and
early Christianity in the
Middle East. The SBF also
carries of the tradition of
the Franciscans who have
helped write the history of
the Christian shrines and
places of pilgrimage in
the Middle East through
archaeological excavation
and the study of Jewish
and Christian literary
sources including pilgrimsʼ
diaries.
•
- 12 -
Fig. 29a-b Valenciennes.
1222 (Fig. 20) which is kept in the library of the Greek
Patriarchate of Jerusalem.123 The blood flows in abundance from the feet and falls on the skull.
In the l4th century several Italian artists again took
up the motif of the Sacred Blood. Simone Martini124
(1285-1334) expressed it in a Deposition from the
Cross kept in Anversa (Fig. 15). The scene is somewhat
similar to Byzantine art, but is very dramatic. Calvary
is shown with steps and the skull is situated at the front of a sepulchral cave. An anonymous
artist125 approaching the style of Nardo di Cione, in a picture in the Gallery of the Academy in
Florence, represented the Holy Trinity with the Father holding the Crucifix and between the
two is a dove representing the Holy Spirit (Fig. 17). The cross is planted on the rock of Calvary
and before it is the skull of Adam which is bathed by Blood from the feet of Jesus flowing
from the cross and the rock. Jacobello126 Alberegno in a tryptic of 1397 found in the Gallery
of the Academy in Venice, painted a Crucifixion of the type of Giotto, also with the peculiarity
of the Sacred Blood flowing on to the skull. Calvary is a rock and at the side of Jesus stand
Mary and John. Paolo Veneziano reproduced the same motif in a picture in Arbe127 and later
on Jacopo Bellini in one kept at the Civic Museum of Verona.128 The Blood flows from the feet
of Jesus on to the rock of Calvary reaching the skull of Adam which is placed below Calvary.
There is a picture by Cosimo Rosselli129 of 1456 (Fig. 21), in the style of Bl. Angelico which
belongs to the collection of Solby. St. Francis stands at the right of the cross and St. Ludovic
of Tolouse on the left.
Various Spanish artists have depicted the Sacred Blood flowing in abundance from the
wounded Body of Jesus and falling on the rock of Calvary
but they did not place it in relation to Adam. For example in
a work by Louis Barrassa130 and one by a Catalonian artist.131
A Bohemian painting (1350-1360)131a is similar. The Blood
flows on to the people below but not on to the skull. Here the
theological idea is slightly changed. Jesus is not portrayed
from the point of view of the God-Man who saves mankind
but only in his suffering humanity.
Other artists keep to the old idea. Thus, a painter of 1330132
from Vienna in a
picture kept at
the Monastery of
Klosterneuburg,
shows Blood
flowing in abundance from the
Body of Christ
which is collected by three
angels however,
a large part falls
upon Adam.
Another painter
of the school of
Fig. 31a-b Hurg.
Fig. 30
Nevers.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Academic Center.
The SBF is a pontifical
faculty that offers courses
leading to both the
licentiate (S.S.L.) and the
doctoral (S.S.D.) degrees
in Biblical Studies and
Archaeology. The program
of studies leading to the
licentiate includes two
semesters of introductory
studies and five regular
semesters. The program
of studies leading to the
doctoral degree requires
four additional semesters
and the writing of a dissertation.
Other programs of studies lead to diplomas in
Oriental Biblical Studies
and Archaeology and in
Biblical Formation.
•
Wladimir Suzdal133 in the same century (14th), shows the rock
of Calvary and the Sacred Blood which flows over Adam.
The Crucifixion scene depicts various individuals. The same
may be noted in an icon of the same century in the collection
of Phaneromeni in Nicosia where Calvary is very rocky and
two small streams of Blood flow from the feet of the Lord.
On each side of the Cross are Mary and John with a donator
shown in a kneeling position.134
In the Church of Santa Maria in Louvares,135 the painter
Philip Goul represented the rock of Calvary with an aperture
from which the Sacred Blood flows down from the cross
(Fig. 23).
Adam collecting the Sacred Blood
Adam is closely connected with the idea of Redemption
where is shown carefully collecting the Sacred Blood into a
chalice with angels at the scene. This motif is found already in
the 13th century, e.g., in a missal of the Cathedral of Tournai136
in Belgium Adam is shown lying in the tomb with his head
covered and holding a chalice in his hand. This scene in itself
is depicted apart from the Crucifixion of the Lord. Another
medieval miniature137 has Adam sitting on the tomb holding
a chalice in his hand (Fig. 26). He is bareheaded and places
the chalice near the feet of the Crucified. A crucifix in relief
of the 13th century at Vechselbourg (Fig. 24), Germany,138
shows Mary and John at the foot of the cross where Adam
is in a half-lying position holding the chalice, in the act of
collecting the Sacred Blood flowing from the feet of Christ.
The sepulchre is not shown.
Fig. 32 Guardiagrele
Adam in the Tomb
In Jerusalem they used to relate that the resurrection of
Adam took place with that of the Lord. This is attested at
the beginning of the 12th century by the pilgrim Sewulf,
aforementioned. It appears that this idea is connected to the
legendary Life of Adam and Eva. It is thought that this was
introduced into the legend. In fact Archangel Michael is made
to say to Seth that he will receive the oil of life only after
5000 years when the greatly beloved king, Jesus Christ, Son
of God, will come to the earth to resuscitate the body of Adam
and with him all the bodies of the dead.139 Iconography, for
this reason, is connected with the Resurrection and is also
related to the Last Judgement.
The motif is shown in a simple form when the skull is
joined to the neck and does not stand alone. In the 12th century it developed in various ways. Adam sometimes lies in
the tomb like any other, sometimes he is depicted in the act
of praying with arms raised towards the cross, at other times
as if rising up and lifting the cover of his tomb. Because this
subject began to be developed in Europe the sepulchre has
the appearance of an ordinary tomb.
Adam in Prayer
- 13 -
The position he is given is that of the arms raised towards
Christ and is found either under the cross or in separate
pictures. The oldest examples are of the 12th century and
special mention should here be made of the Sacramentary of
St. Armand of Valenciennes (Fig. 29) in France.139a It shows
the Crucifixion with Mary and John at each side of the cross
and below a tomb containing Adam and covered with a sepulchral drape. The hands of Adam are raised in prayer. Another
medieval example is the enamelled Crucifix (Fig. 30) kept in
Nevers.140 The inscriptions are in Latin and Adam is crowned.
Fig. 33 From Toscana.
essays - SBF
17
SantʼAntonio lʼEgiziano nel deserto
Il Museo
Annesso allo SBF si
trova il Museo , fondato
nel 1902, dove vengono
esposti i reperti più
significativi degli scavi
archeologici dello SBF.
Strutturato in funzione didattica per gli
studenti e i pellegrini,
comprende sale che illustrano rispettivamente
gli scavi di Nazaret,
di Cafarnao e del
“Dominus Flevit”, delle
fortezze dellʼHerodion
e di Macheronte e dei
monasteri del Deserto di
Giuda.
•
- 14 -
He is shown below with his hands almost touching the feet
of the Redeemer. The sepulchre is not seen. A Milanese
work in enamel is kept in the Poldi Museum, Pozzuoli141
and shows a half-bust of Adam with arms raised but the
sepulchre is not depicted. A similar stance is found at
the bottom of a wooden crucifix kept in Hurg (Fig. 31),
Norway142 and is of the 13-14th century.
A genealogical tree painted by Pacino di Buonaguida143
in 1311 is found in Florence and kept in the Gallery of
the Academy. The tree is composed of medallions and
in the centre is Christ crucified with the skull of Adam
below Calvary. In Egypt two sculptured crucifixes144 of an
unknown epoch shows one with Adam, his hands joined
in an act of prayer (Fig. 28) and the other with his arms
raised on high (Fig. 27).
Adam Atlas
Seibert in the Lexicon145 explains that the crucifix of
Seckan, Innsbruck (Fig. 36), sculptured in 1160 shows
Adam as Atlas as he supports the weight of the cross This
refers to the wellknown type of Atlas as he is always shown
in the act of supporting a weight on his shoulders. Here,
however, to the contrary, he is depicted attached to the cross.
The Candlestick of Venice, for example, shows the hand
of Jesus joined to that of Adam in the descent to Hell. This
infers a confident reliance on the One above. In this case
Adam wears a long, thick beard. The same may be said of the
large crucifix (1.75 m high) of San Candido,146 Val di Sesto
(Fig. 35), where Christ crucified has the royal crown on his
head. As a support for the feet there is a human head. The
crown brings to mind the triumph of the Crucified but it does
not exclude the fact that he is the Redeemer. The doctrinal
aspect of this crucifix is also connected to the crucifix of
Salonika which bears an inscription to Jesus King of Glory.
Fig. 34 Camaiore
The Skeleton and the Resurrection
A miniature of the “Hortus Deliciarum”147 kept in the National Library of Paris and dated to the 12th century,
reproduces the Crucifixion scene together with several persons mentioned in the Gospels and two others that are
symbolic. The Church is depicted riding on horseback with four heads, the symbols of the evangelists as well as the
synagogue with her head covered. Below there is a sarcophagus containing a skeleton and nearby other tombs. In
Fig. 35 Innichen
Fig. 36 Seckan
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
The STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM of
Jerusalem (SBF) is
the Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology
of the Pontificia
Universitas Antonianum
in Rome. In 1901, the
Franciscan Custody of the
Holy Land began planning
a center for biblical
studies in Jerusalem
and these plans led to
the establishment of the
SBF in 1924. Located in
Jerusalemʼs Old City, the
SBF offers degree and
non-degree programs
of studies in biblical
interpretation and in
archaeology. Associated
with the SBF is the
Studium Theologicum
Jerosolymitanum, the
Custody of the Holy Landʼs
school of theology.
•
- 15 -
one a person is seen rising and in the other two persons just waiting.
Clearly the miniature of the Death of the Lord is connected with
the Resurrection and the skeleton at the foot of Calvary probably
represents Adam as the motif is repeated.
The position of the skeleton we find developed in works of a
rather later epoch of the 14th century. A sculpture in the Cathedral
of Strasbourg148 (Fig. 37), made about 1300, shows the Crucifixion
scene with Mary, John and others and at the feet of Jesus is a skeleton
in a tomb. The precious Blood flows from the side of Christ, and
is collected into a chalice it does not flow over the skeleton. The
Crucifixion by Vitale da Bologna149 of 1335 shows a very animated
scene and expresses the sorrow of the Virgin. The cross is planted
on the rock and a little further down is an opening which allows one
to see the skeleton of Adam in the rock which seems to be in the
act of rising. A little later Niccolo di Guardiagrele150 in 1431 (Fig.
32), sculptured a crucifix in silver with circles at the end of the arms
of the processional cross, with various symbols inside the circles.
Below the feet of the Crucified he depicts a kind of circular tomb
made of stones, with the skull of Adam in the centre.
Fig. 37 Strassbourg
Adam in the Act of Rising
In a miniature of the 13th century, in a missal
of Saint Eloi151 in France, Adam is depicted seated,
awaiting the resurrection, or better still to follow
Christ. It is not connected to the Crucifixion scene.
The same is found in a relief of the Cathedral of Toledo, of Byzantine work152 and in an isolated scene in
enamel kept in the Vatican Library which represents
(Fig. 38) Adam in the act of rising from the tomb153
as called by Jesus. The cover of the tomb is already
raised to allow him to leave it.
Fig. 38 Vatican
* * *
On the basis of a rudimental catalogue of examples, published on various occasions, we may reach the following conclusions:
1. The type showing the skull of Adam under Calvary and in full sight is certainly the most ancient. From
the examples we have at our disposal, its origins maybe established roughly to the period of the invasions of the
Byzantine Empire, from the 8th to 9th century The motif first appears at times in connection with the minor arts
and later the major arts.
2. Such a type originated and was developed in the Orient, and was connected with Byzantine art. Only later
it came to the knowledge of European artists
3. With the arrival of the 11th century, the type was enriched with new theological ideas and the introduction of the Blood of Christ which bathed the head of the first man. Also, in this case, more ancient examples are
found in the Orient.
4. In Europe, in the 12th century, the motif was developed differently and showed Adam in the tomb awaiting the Resurrection. The theological aspect then changed in a remarkable way connecting the motif to the final
resurrection.
5. The same occurred in Europe where a type of Adam was shown collecting the Sacred Blood in conformity
with texts of the period, as previously happened for other iconographic types.
6. With the 15th century, the subject, in Europe, was included together with other elements of the Passion of the
Lord, which accompanied the cult of the humanity of Christ. The previous theological idea of the “Redemption”
eventually became connected to other Christological ideas.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Research Center.
While the SBF supports
research and publication
in all areas of biblical studies, a particular
focus has been on the
archaeological excavation
of sites associated with
the New Testament and
early Christianity in the
Middle East. The SBF also
carries of the tradition of
the Franciscans who have
helped write the history of
the Christian shrines and
places of pilgrimage in
the Middle East through
archaeological excavation
and the study of Jewish
and Christian literary
sources including pilgrimsʼ
diaries.
Fig. 38 St. James
Fig. 38 Novgorod
•
Fig. 38 Granaiola
Fig. 38 G. David
FOOTNOTES
Ex gr. LʼEnciclopedia cattolica, the New Catholic
Encyclopedia, etc.
2
Dictionnaire dʼArchéologie chrétienne et de Liturgie by
LECLERCQ; E. KIRSCHBAUM et al., Lexikon der Christlichen
Ikonographie, Herder 1968. etc. I. MANCINI, Adamo sotto
il Calvario in La Terra Santa 1965, pp. 277-282. - Our
figures are usually taken from the literature presented
in the footnotes.
3
Patr. Greca by MIGNE 122, 1333; C. C. Mc COWN, The
Testament of Solomon edited from Manuscripts, Leipzig
1922, 41. Cfr. B. BAGATTI, in Recherches de Sciences
1
- 16 -
Religieuses, 60 (1972), pp. 151-160.
4
In Matth. n. 126: PG 13, 1777. Fot this and other
texts see X. LE BACHELET in Dictionnaire de Théologie
Catholique, 1, Paris 1903, 381-386.
5
PG 28, 208.
6
LE BACHELET, 381; L. H. VINCENT, E. J. H. MACKAY
and F. M. ABEL, Hébron le Haram el-Khalil, Paris 1923,
pp. 145-146.
7
PG 85,410.
8
French translation in M IGNE , Dictionnaire des
Apocryphes, 1, Paris 1896, 289-391.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
Academic Center.
The SBF is a pontifical
faculty that offers courses
leading to both the
licentiate (S.S.L.) and the
doctoral (S.S.D.) degrees
in Biblical Studies and
Archaeology. The program
of studies leading to the
licentiate includes two
semesters of introductory
studies and five regular
semesters. The program
of studies leading to the
doctoral degree requires
four additional semesters
and the writing of a dissertation.
Other programs of studies lead to diplomas in
Oriental Biblical Studies
and Archaeology and in
Biblical Formation.
•
- 17 -
Cfr. Eusebius, Vita Constantini 25-30: D. BALDI,
Enchiridion Locorum Sanctorum, Jerusalem 1955, n.
924; St. JEROME, Epist. 58 in BALDI, n. 101.
10
E. TESTA, Il Golgota, porto della quiete in Studia
Hierosolymitana, 1, Jerusalem 1976, pp. 197-244.
11
See texts in BALDI, n. 928 and in Corpus Christianorum
Ser. Lat. 175, pp. 67-90.
12
In his Itinerary, written by Adomnan, there are
drawings of various places and this is non shown: BALDI,
n. 935; Corpus chr., pp., 186-195,
13
In BALDI, n. 931, 4, Corpus chr., p. 110.
14
H. DONNER, Die Palästinabeschreibung des Epiphanius
Monachus Hagiopolita in ZDPV 87 (1971), p. 67, 12.
Other editions are not always correct.
15
For use of these materials at the Holy Sepulcher see
V. CORBO in LA XII (1962), p. 284.
16
Text in BALDI, n. 945, 5.
17
Text in BALDI, n. 946, 6.
18
B. BAGATTI, Ricerche sullʼiconografia della Koimesis
o Dormitio Mariae in Liber Annuus 25 (1975), pp.
225-253.
19
Cfr. E. LUCCHESI PALLI, Der Syriscih-palästinensische
Darstellungstypus der Höllenfahrt Christi in Römische
Quartalschift, 57 (1962), pp. 253 e 258, tav. 19b; Lexicon
2, 685, 1; New Catholic Encyclopedia 4, 488, fig. 6.
20
W. F. VOLBACH, Lʼarte bizantina nel Medio Evo, Città
del Vaticano 1935, tav. VI, p. 13; DACL 1634-5.
21
D. TAIABOT RICE, Byzantine Art, Pelican Book, tav. 58
e pp. 189-190. The dating of this cross is however much
debated. The Author thinks that it was made by a Greek
artist which hat taken refuge in Italy.
22
A. VENTURI, Storia deltʼarte italiana, II, Milano 1902,
pp. 659 e 544, fig. 484.
23
G. SCHUMBERGER, Mélanges dʼArchéologie Byzantine,
Paris 1895, pp. 187-192, pl. added.
24
TALBOT RICE, The Art of Byzantium, New York s.d. n.
136; Byzantine Art, tav. 55, p. 181; C. DELVOYRE, Lʼart
Byzantin, Paris 1967, n. 164, p. 289.
25
TALBOT RICE, Byzantine Art, pp. 186, fig. 169 e 112,
fig. 100; IDEM, The Art of Byzantium, n. 138; IDEM,
Art of the Byzantine Era, London 1966, fig. 169 e p.
187; LʼArt Byzantin, Geme, Exposition du Conseil de
lʼEurope, Atene 1964, n. 164 with a dating to the 10th
cent., pp. 398-399.
26
Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani, V, tav. XXV with
both parts; Enciclopedia cattolica VIII, 90 only the
crucifixion; VOLBACH, Lʼarte bizantina, tav. 11, p. 11.
27
M. BONICATTI in Rivista dellʼIstituto naz. dʼArcheoloqia
e storia dellʼarte, 9 (1960), p. 233, fig. 22. e pp. 255-6;
M. ANDALORO, ibid. 17 (1970), p. 115.
28
Lexicon 2, 613; G. Mathew, Byzantine Aesthetics,
London 1963, p. 146, n. 22, tav. XI.
29
VENTURI, Storia dellʼarte italiana, II, Milano 1902, p.
660, fig. 485 p. 644. The other side of the reliquary is
reproduced in fig. 486, p. 661.
30
The Dumbarton Oaks Collection Harward University,
Washington 1955, n. 281, p. 142. This inscription is
found again also in later periods, ex. gr. in a liturgical
book od the 18th cent.: G. VALENTINI, Mostra dʼarte
sacra bizantina. Piana degli Albanesi 1957-1958, p.
91, fig. 60.
31
P. TOESCA, Storia dellʼArte Italiana, Torino 1927, II,
pp. 1052 e 1131, fig. 733; Dict. dʼArchéologie chrétienne
et Liturgie, XIII, 1563-4 e fig. 9697 e c. 1560.
32
E. MÂLE, Lʼart religieux du XIIIe siècle eu France, 2,
Paris 1958, p. 129 n. 34.
33
A. BERNAREGGI in Rivista di Archeologia cristiana, II
(1926), shown at p. 151 but discussed at pgs. 144-145;
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXXIV, 666.
34
V.N. LAZAREV, Novgordian Icon-Painting, Mosca
1969, Pl. 9.
9
C. DIEHL, Manuel dʼArt Byzantin, Paris 1926, p.
823, fig. 410; G. MATTHIAE in Rivista dellʼIst. Naz.
dʼArcheologia e Storia dllʼArte 18 (1971), p. 126,
fig, 17.
36
C. COSTANTINI, Il crocefisso nellʼarte, Firenze 1911,
Pl. after p. 102. Another painting is in the same
Baptistery of St. Marc with various saints; Pl. after p.
98; W. WEILDE, Mosaici Veneziani, Milano-Firenze
1956, n. 71.
37
ORLANDOS in ARXEION 1948, p. 127, fig. 108. Adam
motif, p. 126.
38
MATTHIAE, in Rivista dellʼIst. Naz. dʼArch. e storia
dellʼarte 18 (1971), p. 150 fig. 44.
39
TOESCA, p. 1071, fig. 761; n. also p. 1132.
40
S. GAUTTIIER, Emaux limousins, Paris, tav. 7, p.
152.
41
A. BAUMSTARK in Römische Quartalschrift 1906, Pl.
IX, 6, pp. 187-8.
42
S. BETTINI, La scultura. bizantina, II, Firenze 1944,
pp. 47 e 49.
43
I. BOCCALI, Concordantiae verbalis opusculorum
S. Francisci et S. Clarae Assisensium, S. Maria degli
Angeli, Assisi, 1976, p. 131.
44
La Sacra Bibbia dei Fratelli FABBRI, Milano 1964,
VI, p. 207 in colors; Enciclopedia Italiana XII, tav.
III; E. CARLI, Giotto, Milano-Firenze 1952, tav. VI;
R. SALVINI, Tutta la pittura di Giotto, Rizzoli edit.,
1952, tav. 17.
45
E. CECCHI, Trecentisti senesi, Milano 1948, tav. 57-58
e p. 174; E. CARLI, Duccio, Milano-Firenze 1952, pp.
125 e 128.
46
CECCHI, tav. 68 and text at p. 175.
47
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXXV, tav. LX.
48
Enciclopedia Cattolica, V, tav. XXV.
49
Enciclopedia Cattolica, V, tav. XXXI, dellʼanno 1341.
Probabilmente è questʼopera che citava M.E. GORI,
Thesaurus veterum diptychorum, Florentiae 1759, 111,
tav. 5 riportato da A. MAURY in MIGNE, Dictionnaire des
Apocryphes, 1, 570.
50
E. CARLI, Nicola Pisano, Milano-Firenze 1951, tav.
8 (Pisa) e 32 (Siena); Enciclopedia italiana, XII, tav.
VI; E. FAURE, Histoire de lʼArt médiéval, 1964, p. 340,
fig. 139; J. RUSCONI, Siena, Bergamo 1907, p. 41; V.
GILARDONI, Il Gotico, ed. Mondadori 1951, p. 88.
51
U. OJETTI and L. DAMI, Atlante della storia dellʼarte
Italiana, Milano 1925, n. 590, p. 117; GILARDONI, Il
Gotico, p. 88.
52
A. PERONI, S. Michele di Pavia, Cassa di risparmio
delle Province Lombarde 1967, fig. 269 in colors.
53
Reproduced in Fede ed Arte 1957, p. 477, The
Crucifix is found in Camaiore. Another similar Crucifix
from Granaiola, 13th cent., reproduced at p. 476, shows
at the bottom not Adam but the Sepulcher, and I think
that that of Crist is represented (see fig. 40).
54
C. DE CAMPOS, Imagens de Cristo em Portugal,
Lisbona s.d., n. 37, pp. 144-415.
55
A. M EKHITARIAN , Treasures of the Armenian
Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 1969, tav. 18,
1, pp. 25-26.
56
SantʼAmbrogio (Milano) 1939, p. 174.
57
E. BELLUNO, in Fede ad Arte 4 (1957), pp. 148-149
where he speaks about the restorations.
58
C. FERRARI, A.M. ROMANINI and F. BRIVIO, Il
duomo di Milano, Milano 1973, p. 255, fig. 267.
59
Enciclopedia Cattolica, I, tav. CI; Enciclopedia
Italiana, III, tav. XXXVI; G. E. M ONTINI , Storia
dellʼarte italiana, Milano 1936, p. 232.
60
G. PRAMPOLINI, LʼAnnunciazione nei pittori primitivi
italiani, Milano 1939, tav. 60.
61
Fra Angelico da Fiesole. Lʼoevre du Maître, Librairie
Hachette, Paris, s.d., tav. 100 for the great fresco, 129
35
essays - SBF
17
SantʼAntonio lʼEgiziano nel deserto
Il Museo
Annesso allo SBF si
trova il Museo , fondato
nel 1902, dove vengono
esposti i reperti più
significativi degli scavi
archeologici dello SBF.
Strutturato in funzione didattica per gli
studenti e i pellegrini,
comprende sale che illustrano rispettivamente
gli scavi di Nazaret,
di Cafarnao e del
“Dominus Flevit”, delle
fortezze dellʼHerodion
e di Macheronte e dei
monasteri del Deserto di
Giuda.
•
- 18 -
for the small one, see also pp. 235-237, 217 e 225; L.
VERTOSA, Beato Angelico, Firenze 1952, tav. 32 at S.
Marco; F. COLUTTA, Beato Angelico, Milano 1950, tav.
XXXVII at S., Marco; COSTANTINI, dopo p. 128.
62
D. ROPS, La Vita di Cristo nella pittura, Novara 1953,
tav, 53; B. BERENSON, I pittori italiani del Rinascimento,
Milano 1948, pl. at p. 202; A. CONSTANTIN, Encyclopedie
par lʼImage, Histoire Sante, Paris 1928, p. 56;
Enciclopedia Italiana XXII, tav. XXVIII; La Sacra
Bibbia, FABBRI, VI, p. 123, R. CIPRIANI, Tutta la pittura
del Mantegna, Rizzoli edit. 1956, tav. 67.
63
G. BIADEGO, Verona, Bergamo 1909, p. 111.
64
L. Puppi, in Rivista dellʼIst. Naz. di Archeologia
e storia dellʼarte, 13-14 (1964-65), p. 307, fig. 7.
BERENSON, tav. a p. 215.
65
A A. VV., La certosa di Pavia, Cassa di Risparmio
delle Province Lombarde, 1968, tav. 226 in colors.
66
Enciclopedia Cattolica, VIII, 1421.
67
A. VENTURI, Storia dellʼarte italiana, VII, Milano
1911, p. 401, fig. 222.
68
G. VIGNI, Antonello da Messina. Rizzoli ed, 1952,
tav. 45; La sacra Bibbia FABBRI, VI, 124; S. BOTTARI, in
Epoca 30 Giugno 1957.
69
Enciclopedia Cattolica, XIII, tav. CXXXVII.
70
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXII, tav. CLXXVI.
71
Enciclopedia, Cattolica, VIII, tav. LII.
72
Enciclopedia Cattolica, III, pl. in colors after c. 544.
73
A. P. FRUTAZ, in Miscellanea Belvederi, Città del
Vaticano 1954-55, p. 60.
74
Enciclopedia Italiana, VI, 223, the skull is not inside
the Calvary.
75
C. COSTANTINI, Il Crocefisso nellʼarte, pl. after p.
136.
76
W. F. VOLBACRI, La croce, lo sviluppo nellʼorificeria
sacra, Città del Vaticano 1938, tav. 10, fig. 12, text at
p. 11.
77
D. A. LUPINETTI, Castilenti, Lanciano 1973, pp~
125-126 a tav. between pgs. 144-145.
78
C. DEL FRATE, S. Maria del Monte sopra Varese,
Chiavari 1933, tav. xic.
79
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXIX, tav. XLVIII.
80
Evangelium im Bild, München 1954, p. 297.
81
Enciclopedia Cattolica, VI, tav. XI.
82
La Bibbia, FABBRI VI, 259; E. TEA, La vita di Cristo,
Bergamo 1960.
83
C. TERRASSE, La Cathédrale, Miroir du Monde, Paris
1954, p. 32.
94
La S. Bibbia F ABBRI VI, 258; New Catholie
Encyclopedia, 9: 346.
85
New Catholic Encyclopedia, V, pl. in colors after 836;
B. GUERGAN, Le Livre de la Vièrge, Paris 1943, p. 126.
86
Todo Burgos, Agosto 1974, p. 38, in colors.
87
FIERENS-GEVAERT, La peinture a Bruges, Bruxelles
1922, tav. 2. In pl. 7 there is another painting with the
same motif dated around 1500.
88
R C. ENLART, Lʼart gotique et le Renassaince en Cypre,
II, Paris 1899, p. 434.
89
Antonianum (Bologna) 1968, p. 87.
90
L AZAREV , Novgordian Icon, tav. 72. Shows the
crucifixion.
91
PAPAGEORGIOU, Masterpieces of the Byzantine Art of
Cyprus, Nicosia 1965, tav. XXXIV and p. 30.
92
P. MOURATOW , Lʼancienne peinture russe, trans.
A. CAFFI, Roma 1925, 49; P. EUDOKIMOU, Lʼart de
lʼIcone, Desclée de Brouwer, 1972, cap. VI e p. 262;
M, V. ALPATOU, Tresures of Russian Art of the 11th-16th
Centuries, Leningrado 1970, tav. 189 a colori; A.
HACKEL, Les icones, 1952, n. 7.
93
Tesori di Cipro, Comune di Milano, Ente Manifestazioni
Milanesi, Milano 1968, n. 151.
94
V. FACCHINETTI, S. Bernardino da Siena, Milano 1933,
p. 251 image and p. 583 text.
95
C. COSTANTINI, Il crocefisso nellʼarte, dopo p. 140.
96
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXVIII, tav. XXXII.
97
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXI, tav. CLI; U. BÜCHI, Die
Katholische Kirche in der Schweiz, München 1902,
p. 19.
98
Enciclopedia Italiana, XXVIII, tav. CXVI.
99
Enciclopedia Italiana, V, tav. CXLV.
100
COSTANTINI, Il crocefisso nellʼarte, after p. 135,
Galleria antica a moderna, Firenze.
101
Lexicon 2, p. 684; COSTANTINI before p. 147.
102
D. C APONE , Iconografia di S. Giacomo della
Marca, Napoli 1976, p. 55. Basilica di S. Giovanni
Maggiore.
103
Toda Gravada, Maggio 1974, p. 65.
104
Toda Granada, Maggio 1974, p. 48.
105
DIEHL, Manuel, p. 692, fig. 342; M. ANDALORO in
Rivista dellʼIst. Naz. di Archeologia e storia dellʼArte
1.7 (1970), p. 106, fig. 13; D. TALBOT RICE, Byzantine
Art, tav. 57, b e p. 191.
106
G. MATTHIAE in Rivista dellʼIst. Naz. di Archeologia
e storia dellʼArte, 18 (1971) p. 123, fig. 13.
107
W. WEIDIZ, Le iconi bizantine e russe, Firenze 1950,
tav. XXII.
108
La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, V, 217.
109
C. DEL-FRATE, S. Maria del Monte, tav. CLXII.
110
D. ROPS, La vita di Cristo nella pittura, Novara, 1953,
n. 57; La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, V, 266; B. GUEGAN,
Le tivre de la Vierge, Paris 1943, p. 126.
111
V. GILARDONI, Il Gotico, pp. 134-135.
112
Rostov-Suzdal Painting of the 12th-16th Centuries,
Mosca 1969, tav. 88 in colors; C. BERTACCINI, Le prime
pitture in Russia in abc Rivista dʼarte (Torino), X (1941)
n. 4, pp. 6-7.
113
ORLANDOS, in APXEION 1938, p. 88, fig. 62; DIEHL,
Manuel, p. 823.
114
R. HUYGHE, Lʼarte e lʼuomo, II, Torino 1961, p.
396, n. 1087.
115
FIERENS-GEVAERT, La peinture a Bruges, tav. 80.
MIGNE, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes, II, 513.
117
BALDI, Enchiridion: “In quo loco sanguis Christi, qui
per scissuram illuc cucurrerat, restitisse perhibetur”.
118
D. TALBOT RICE, Art of the Byzantine Era, London
1963, p. 97; W. W,~.L9E, Mosaici paleo-cristiani e
bizantini, Milaino Firenze 1954, tav. 101; P. MURATOFF,
La pittura bizantina, Roma 1929, tav. XCI; C. DELVOYE,
Lʼart byzantin, n. 111 e p. 230.
119
WEILDE, Mosaici paleocristiani, tav. 125; L. BREHIER,
Lʼart byzantin, Paris 1924, p. 149; MURATOFF, La pittura
bizantina, tav. XCVII; HUYGHE, Lʼarte e lʼuomo, p. 158,
n. 434; H. MARTIN, Lʼart byzantin, Paris 1930, p. 51,
tav. X; M. AMMANN, La pittura sacra bizantina, Roma
1957, n. 17; DIEHL, Manuel, p. 198, fig. 237 e 524-527;
M. AUBERT, Nouvelle Histoire universelle de lʼArt, I,
Paris 1932, p. 218, fig. 259.
120
E. T ESTA , Il simbolismo dei Giudeo-cristiani,
Gerusalemme 1962, pp. 230-360.
121
G. MATTHIAE in Rivista dellʼIst. Naz. di Archeologia
e storia dellʼarte 18 (1971), p. 121, fig. 10, greek ms.
54.
122
Lʼart religieux, p. 129.
123
W. H. PAINE HACTCH, Greek and Syrian miniatures
in Jerusalem, Cambridge 1931, tav. LXVI.
124
La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, VI, 216; CECCHI, Trecentisti
senesi, pl. at p. 131, text 182; E. SANDBERG-VALALA,
Simone Martini, Milano-Firenze 1932, tav. 59.
125
La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, V, p. 71.
126
Galleria dellʼAccademia a Venezia, Istituto De
Agostini, Novara 1970, n. 10; Enciclopedia cattolica,
I, 657-658.
127
I Maestri del colore, ed. Fabbri, 241, VII.
essays - SBF
17
Iconography of Adam under Calvary
The STUDIUM BIBLICUM
FRANCISCANUM of
Jerusalem (SBF) is
the Faculty of Biblical
Sciences and Archaeology
of the Pontificia
Universitas Antonianum
in Rome. In 1901, the
Franciscan Custody of the
Holy Land began planning
a center for biblical
studies in Jerusalem
and these plans led to
the establishment of the
SBF in 1924. Located in
Jerusalemʼs Old City, the
SBF offers degree and
non-degree programs
of studies in biblical
interpretation and in
archaeology. Associated
with the SBF is the
Studium Theologicum
Jerosolymitanum, the
Custody of the Holy Landʼs
school of theology.
•
- 19 -
C. BIAREGO, Verona, Bergamo 1909, p. 110.
Fra Angelico da Fiesole, Lʼoeuvre du Maitre, p. 225
image and 241 historical information.
130
La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, VI, 257.
131
La Sacra Bibbia FABBRI, VI, 256.
131a
Evangelium im Bild, p. 293.
132
Enciclopedia Italiana V, tav. CXVII.
133
New Catholic Encyclopedia 4, 489, fig. 10.
134
Tesori di Cipro, Milano 1968, p. 50 e tav. 106.
135
PAPAGEORGHIOU, Masterpieces, tav. XXXIV.
136
J. DUMOLIN, CH. DESSART e J. MESSIAEN, La Cathédrale
de Tournai, Costerman 1971, tav. 63.
137
J. G. BOUGEROL, St. Bonaventure, Paris 1963, p. 134.
138
A. KUHN, Allgemeine Kunst-Geschichte, Geschickte der
Plastik, I, Einsiedeln 1891, pl. after p. 320; COSTANTINI, Il
crocifisso nellʼarte, before p. 111.
139
E. PIATTOLI in Annuario di Studi ebraici, 1968-69, p. 20.
139a
Les Manuscrits à peintures en France du VIIe au XIIe
siècle, Paris 1954, tav. XVI, 11. 171, pagg. 68-69.
140
S. GAUTHIER, Emaux limousins, tav. 16, p. 153.
141
Enciclopedia Italiana XXXI, tav. CLXXXVI.
142
A. ANDERSON, LʼArt Scandinave, Zodiaque 1968, p.
128
129
317 and p. 183.
143
VENTURI, Storia dellʼarte italiana V, Milano 1907,
fig. 410, p. 507, see also p. 502 and fig. 404.
144
G. GIAMBERARDINI, in Studia Orientalia christiana,
Collectanea n. 7, Cairo 1962, pp. 96-97, tav. XVIII,
n. 31.
145
Lexicon, 1, 195.
146
BERNAREGGI in Rivista di Archeologia cristiana, II,
p. 137 image and p. 134 text.
147
E. MÂLE, LʼArt religieuse du XIII siècle en France,
II, Paris 1958, p. 113, image in drawing.
148
C. TERRASSE, La cathédrale, Miroir du Monde, Paris
1954, p. 135.
149
I maestri del colore, ed. FABBRI, III, 157.
150
Enciclopedia Cattolica VIII, 1847-48.
151
New Catholic Encyclopedia II, 770.
152
KUHN, cit., p. 299, fig. 422. Text p. 304.
153
Enciclopedia Cattolica XI, 819. This motif is
common also in the illustated manuscripts, ex. gr. in the
Evangeliary of Vyschrad, of boemian school from 1083,
preserved at Praga: G. MANDEL, La miniatura, romanica
e gotica, ed. Mondadori, s.d. n. 22, in colors.
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