...

O A

by user

on
Category: Documents
6

views

Report

Comments

Description

Transcript

O A
1477
Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
ISSN 1819-544X
This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Biogenic amines and chemical composition of different formulations used for
manufacture of processed cheese
1
Mohamed A.G, 2M.M. Deabes, 1Fatma A.M. Hassan, 1Ali, K. Enab and 2A.A.K. Abou- Arab
¹Department of Dairy science, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
²Department of Food Toxicology and Contaminants, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
ABSTRACT
Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous bases, they were found in
fermented foods and cheese. Four formulations were prepared to produce processed chesse These
formulations are: (1) Ras cheese, cheddar cheese, butter, skim milk powder, strong emulsifying (Kusomel –
2394) and water, (2) The previous constituents with weak emulsifying (Kusomel -2211), (3) White cheese,
butter, skim milk powder, strong emulsifying (K- 2394) and water, (4) The previous formulation with weak
emulsifying (K-2211). Chemical composition of these ingredients, the resultant processed cheese and its
physical properties as penetrometer reading (mm), oil separation, melting index and color parameters were
determined. Five biogenic amines contents (mg/kg) of processed cheese from different formulations were
determined by HPLC/UV. Data proved that slightly significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed among the
chemical composition, i.e. T.S, F/D.M, protein and ash. On the other hand, non significant differences (p≥0.05)
were detected between the formulations (1, 2) and (3, 4). Data also, indicated that the firmness of formulations
increased with hard cheese formulations. Regarding to oil separation index, data revealed that significantly
affected was detected. Highly significant differences was observed in the formulations (3, 4) than that detected
in formulations (1, 2). The same trend was observed in the melting Index. Whiteness of formulation (3, 4)
increased significantly (p≤0.05) than the formulations (1,2). Similar trend was observed with the intensity of
green (a- value), while significant differences (p≤0.05) was detected with yellow (b- value) color. Total
biogenic amines contents (mg/kg) were highest in formulation (4) than other three formulations. Whereas
formulation (1) contains lowest concentration of histamine than other formulations. On the other hand
formulation (2) had lowest content of tyramine than other formulations. So we must use formulation (1) and
formulation (2) to produce processed cheese with low content of histamine and tyramine to overcome the
problem of biogenic amines.
Key words: Biogenic amines, HPLC, chemical composition, formulations, processed cheese.
Introduction
Milk and milk products are very important in human nutrition and, among them; cheese is considered a good
source proteins, vitamins and minerals. However, cheese is one of the most fermented foods commonly
associated with BAs contamination. These compounds are basic nitrogenous compounds formed by series of
microorganisms, mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids or “in vivo” also by deamination and transamination
of aldehydes and ketones (Loizzo et al., 2012).The most abundant and frequent BAs in food are putrescine,
tyramine, histamine, and cadaverine. Putrescine can be formed from ornithine decarboxylation or agmatine
deamination, while tyramine, histamine, and cadaverine are synthesized by tyrosine, histidine and lysine
decarboxylation, respectively (Ten Brink et al., 1990). BAs production and accumulation, necessarily
requires the presence of decarboxylase- or deiminase-positive microorganisms, the presence of amino
acid precursors and several other environmental factors such as pH, ethanol and temperature (Arena et al.,
2008; Fernandez et al., 2007b; Marcobal et al., 2006). Although BAs can be found in a variety of foodstuffs
such as fish products, they are usually associated with foods and beverages whose elaboration involves
fermentation and ripening processes, such as cheese, wine or cider (Ten Brink et al., 1990). Consumption of
food containing high levels of BAs is considered undesirable since it can be associated with several
toxicological problems such as respiratory distress, headache, hyper- or hypo-tension or allergies (Ladero et
al., 2010). These problems are especially severe in consumers with low levels of the enzymes involved in the
detoxification system (mono and diamine oxidases), either by genetic disorders (Caston et al., 2002) or
medical treatments (Halasz et al., 1994; Brown et al., 1989; Joosten and Northolt, 1987).
Corresponding Author: Fatma A.M. Hassan, Department of Dairy science, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
E-mail: [email protected]
1478
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
In cheese, it has been observed that the ripening process (involving proteolysis) contributes to an
increase in the amino acid availability and that cheeses with long ripening periods contained high BAs
concentrations (Fernandez et al., 2007a).Cheeses represent an ideal environment for amine production
(Chang et al., 1985; Edwards and Sandine, 1981).
Raw milk cheese showed remarkably higher biogenic amines compared with pasteurized milk cheese.
Therefore, pasteurization of milk causes a decrease in final biogenic amine content of cheese as a result of the
reduction of its microbial count. Some biogenic amines in cheese may arise from decarboxylation of amino
acids by micro organisms (Joosten and Olieman, 1986), but other can be natural (Bardòcz, 1995). On the
other hand, BAs accumulation requires the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganism (Ladero et al.,
2010).
The presence of biogenic amines in cheeses has been investigated previously (Novella – Rodiguez et al.,
2000 ; Valsamaki et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to manufacture of processed cheese by using different
emulsifier salts (Weak – Strong) and studied the effect of these salts on both cheese and fresh cheese ripening to
choose the best emulsifier salts which produce low biogenic amines in cheese to overcome the problem of
biogenic amines.
Materials And Methods
Materials
1- Raw materials for preparing processed cheese (PCs):
Ras cheese (one month old) was obtained from Arabic Food Industrial Co. (Domety), 6th October City,
Egypt. Also matured cheddar cheese (8 months old) and kosomel emulsifying salt K-2394 (Rhone- Poulenc
Chimic- France) was obtained from International Dairy and Foods Co. (Millkyland), 10th Ramadan City, Egypt.
Low heat skim milk powder and butter were procured from Irish Dairy Board, Grattan House, and lower
Mountst. Dublin Ireland Goat milk was obtained from a herd (20-30 heants) of private farm in Gizacdistrict.
Chemical composition of the ingredients used in manufacturing processed cheese spread is presented in Table
(1).
2- Chemicals and reagents:
Dansyl chloride (5- {Dimethylamino} naphtalene -1- sulfonyl chloride), Histamine-2HCl, tyramine - HC1,
cadaverine - 2 HC1, putrescine -2 HC1, -3HC1 and β-phenylethylamine were purchased from (Sigma- Co. Louis, Mo
63178 U.S.A).
Methods:
Manufacture of processed cheeses:
Processed cheeses were manufactured according to the method of Meyer (1973) young Ras and matured
cheddar cheeses, emulsifying salt (2.5%), butter, skim milk powder and water were placed into the processing
batch type kettle of 10kg capacities, a pilot machine locally made in Egypt (Mohamed,2004) in National
Research Center. manufactured from cow's milk
Physical analysis:
The PCs penetration was measured using a penetrometer (Kochler Instrument Co. Inc., USA) as described
by Gupta and Reture (1993). The penetration depth was recorded in units of 0.1mm.) Oil separation in (mm)
was determined according to the method outlined by Thomas (1973). Meltability in millimeters (mm) of the PCs
samples was measured as described by Olsen and Price (1958) with a slightly modification by Savello et al.,
(1989). Color penetrometer using a Hunter Lab. Colorimeter Model b25 A-2 (Hunter Assoc. Lab. Inc. Va, USA)
and the instruction of user manual. The instrument was first standardized using a reference with white surface.
As in the Hunter L, a and b scale describe lightness to white (100), redness (+) to greeness (-) and yellowness
(+) to blueness (-), respectively, were measured.
1-Determination of biogenic amines in Cheese:
1479
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
Five biogenic amines included histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, and β-phenylethylamine
were extracted and determined in all tested samples according to Deabes (2000) ; Mietz and Karmas (1977) as
follows:
Reagents:
1.Dansyl chloride solution: 500mg of dansylchloride were dissolved in 100 ml acetone.
2.Standard solutions: Stock standard solutions of the tested amines: 25mg of each standard pure amines
histamine-2HCl, tyramine - HCI, cadaverine - 2 HCI, putrescine -2 HCI and β-phenylethylamine were
dissolved in 50 ml distilled water individually.
3.Working standard solutions
Two milliliters of each stock standard solution were pipetted into 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted to
volume with 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA). This solution is prepared freshly (weakly) and stored in a
refrigerator.
Mobile phase solvents consist of:
Solvent A : Acetonitrile: 0.02 N acetic acid (1:9)
Solvent B: 0.02 N acetic Acid: acetonitrile: methanol ( 1 : 9 : 9).
Condition of HPLC analysis as follow:
Time (min.)
Flow rate (ml/min)
0
10
20
25
1
1
1
1
Solvent
A%
B%
Curve
25
10
5
25
75
90
95
75
6
6
6
Apparatus:
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Waters 600) was used to dansylamines
determination. The system equipped with delivery system, reverse phase CI8 Nucleosil column 250 x 4
mm, 10m packing,(Macherey - Naggl). The detection was performed using U.V detector (Waters 486) at
wavelength 254 nm using linear program of 25 min period and 1 ml / min constant solvent flow rate. Data
were integrated and recorded using a Millennium Chromatography (Waters, Milford MA 01757).
Methods:
Extraction:
Twenty five gram of homogenized cheese was blended with 125 ml of 5% TCA for 3 min using a warning
blender then filtration was achieved using filter paper Whatman No.(l). Ten milliliters of the extracts was
transferred into a suitable culture tube with 4g NaCl and 1 ml of 50 % NaOH then extracted three times by 5 ml
n-butanol / chloroform (1:1 v/v) stoppered and shaked vigorously for 2.0 min. followed by centrifugation for
5.0 min. at 3000 rpm and the upper layer was transferred to 50 ml separating funnel using disposable Pasteur
pipette. To the combined organic extracts (upper layers), 15 ml of n-heptane was added and extracted three
times with 1.0 ml portions of 0.2 N HC1, the HC1 layer was collected in a glass stoppered tube. Solution was
evaporated just to dryness using water bath at 95°C with aid of a gentle current of air.
Formation of dansylamines:
Two hundred µL of each stock standard solution (or sample extract) were transferred to a culture tube
and dried under vacuum. About 0.5 ml of saturated. NaHCO3 solution was added to the residue of the
sample extract (or the standard). Stoppered and carefully mixed to prevent loss- due to spattering. Carefully,
1.0 ml dansyl chloride solution was added and mixed thoroughly using vortex mixer. The reaction mixture
was incubated at 55°C for 45 min. About 10 ml of distilled water were added to the reaction mixture,
stoppered and shaked vigorously using vortex mixer, then the extraction of dansylated biogenic amines was
carried out using three times of 5.0 ml portions of diethylether, stoppered, shaked carefully for 1.0 min and
the ether layers were collected in a culture tube using disposable pasteur pipette. The combined ether extracts
1480
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
were carefully evaporated at 35°C on hot plate with aid of current air. The obtained dry film was dissolved
in 1ml methanol, then 10 µLwere injected in HPLC.
Calibration:
Two hundred of each stock standard solutions were transferred to glass stoppered tube. Using a current
of air on dry bath, at 90°C the solution was evaporated to <200 µL. Dansyl derivatives were prepared
above the residue was dissolved in 5.0 ml acetonitrile (1ml = 20 µg or 50 µL = lµg each of the derivatives).
Injection was carried out using 20 µL of each calibrated. The elution pattern of dansyl derivatives was as
follows:, B-phenylethamine, Putrescine, Cadaverine, Histamine and Tyramine.
Calculation:
Peaks area of each of the eight dansylamines (standard or the examined sample) were obtained from the
HPLC Millennium report and the concentrations were calculated according to the follow equation:
ppm of each dansylamine = (P /P* ) x dilution factor of sample.
Where P = peak area of the dansylamine in sample
P* = peak area of standard.
Statistical analysis was carried out according to SAS(2004).
Results And Discussion
Processed cheese is a product obtained by blending different types of cheeses and maturity with melting
salts emulsifying. In the present investigation two types of salts strong and weak (K. 2394 and K. 2211) were
studied. Chemical composition of processed cheese ingredients, i.e. Ras cheese, Cheddar cheese, white cheese,
butter and skim milk powder were determined as shown in (Table 1). Formulations ingredients of the different
blends used for manufacture of processed cheese were determined and data are illustrated in Table (2) it is clear
that The first and second formulations consist of hard cheese (Ras and Cheddar cheese) Butter, Skim milk
powder (S.M.P) and water and strong emulsifying salt (Kusomel K- 2394) in formulation (1) as well as weak
emulsifying salt (Kvsome K- 2211) in formulation (2). On the other hand, the third and fourth formulation
consist of white cheese, Butter and Skim milk powder (S.M.P) and water and strong emulsifying salt kusomel
(K- 2394) in formulation (3) and weak emulsifying salt (K-2211) in formulation (4).
Gross chemical composition of the previous four formulations at various levels of hard and white cheese
and strong or weak emulsifying salts were studied and data are presented in Table (3). Results indicated that,
there were slightly significant differences (p<0.05) among the chemical composition, i.e. T.S., F/DM, protein
and ash. However, lactose content in formulation (3) and (4) (made form white cheese) is higher content than in
formulation (1) and (2) (made from hard cheese), these results may be due to the limitation growth and activity
of an resident micro-flora, such as heat resistant proteinases or psychrotrophic bacteria present and enzymes in
the product, which cause hydrolysis of lactose to lactic acid (Younis and Hsieh 1991) and also the type of
cheese formulation may affected.
Physical properties of different formulations in the present study were determined and data summarized in
Table (4). A penetrometer reading expressed in (mm) was used for the determination of the firmness of resulted
processed cheese. It is clear that formulations made by using white cheese and emulsifying salts were
significantly affected (p<0.05), while penterometer reading of formulations made by using hard cheese and
emulsifying salts were decrease (firmness increased). Statistical analysis showed non significant differences
between the formulations (1 & 2) and (3 & 4).
The same table showed that the oil separation indexes in the investigated formulations were significantly
affected due to the type of formulation (cheese and emulsifying salts). Significant increase (P≤0.5) was observed
in the formulations (3) and (4) than that detected in formulations (1) and (2). The decreased of oil separation
proved that the emulsifying salts were suitable for maintaining a uniform structure and distribution of protein
and fat contents after the melting stage, also adjusting the pH to desired levels avoid any oil separation from the
products (Younis et al., 1991).
Regarding to melting index, the same trend of oil separation was observed. The formulations (3 & 4) from
white cheese and emulsifying salts had a greater meltability values than that of formulations made from hard
cheese and emulsifying salts (formulations 1 & 2). Data indicated that the difference between types of
emulsifying salts were not significant (p≤0.05).
Table (5) show that wheteness (L- value) of formulation (3 & 4) from white cheese and emulsifying salts
increased significantly (p≤0.05) than formulation (1 & 2) from hard cheese and emulsifying salts. The same
1481
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
trend was observed with the intensity of green (a- value), while insignificant difference detected with yellow (Bvalue) color.
Biogenic amine contents (mg/kg) of processed cheese were determined and obtained data are presented in
Table (6). Formulation (1) from hard cheese and strong emulsifying salt had a lowest content of Histamine
(0.53) than other formulations whereas formulation (2) from hard cheese and weak emulsifying salt had a lowest
content of both putrescien (7.31) and tyramine (0.3). On the other hand, formulation (3) from white cheese and
strong emulsifying had lowest content of β- Phnyethylamine (0.35), whereas formulation (4) from white cheese
and weak emulsifying salts had lowest content of cadvarine (11.2) and biogenic amines than other formulation
to overcome problems such as respiratory distress, head ache, hyper or hyper tension as allergie (Ladevo et al.,
2010).
The principal biogenic amines found in cheese are generally Tyramine, Histamine, Cadverine, Putrescine
and TRP However wide variations in their concentrations have been observed, mostly related with milk hygienic
conditions and cheese manufacturing practices ( Loizzo , et al., (2012).
The effects of salt during cheese preparation include control of microbial growth and activity, control of
various enzyme activities, reduction of cheese moisture content and physical changes in cheese proteins that can
influence cheese texture, flavour development and formation of BAs from free amino acids. Different salt
content could be related with the variation of microflora composition, leading in a second time to different BAs
formation. In particular low NaCl concentrations seem to improve the accumulation of BAs while high salt
concentrations seem to inhibit BAs production. The decrease of the BAs concentration could be explained by the
inhibitory effect of high salt content on the growth rate of BA-producing bacteria (Gardini et al., 2001) and/or on
the amino acid decarboxyl-ation activities (Chander,et al., 1988).
In the study of Andic, et al., (2010) reporting the BAs contents of 30 samples of herby cheeses, the salt
content of the samples was found between 4.73 and 13.80% and generally the salt value was high in samples that
had low BAs levels. The prevailing amine was in all cases TYR (18.0—1125.5 mg kg-1), followed by CAD
(ND-1844.5 mg kg-1) or PUT (ND-847.0 mg kg-1 ); HIS content generally was found higher than 100 mg kg-1
.The simultaneous effects of processing factors on BAs content, proteolysis and sensory score of Iranian white
brine cheese were studied in 12 cheeses also by Aliakbarlu, (2011). It was found that HYS and CAD had the
largest quantity while TYR content was negligible. Brine concentration in the range 10—13% has been
demonstrated to affect significantly the BAs accumulation in this kind of cheeses. In young cheese samples
(ripening time = 25 days), BAs content decreased by increasing brine concentration while in ripened cheese
samples, it has positive effect on BAs accumulation. Authors ascribed this effect to sodium chloride enhanced
activity of halotolerant lactobacilli which can cause massive formation of CAD and, to a less extend, PUT. On
the other hand, decreasing of BAs content in cheese can be had several causes. According to Valsamaki et al.
(2000), a dynamic equilibrium seems to exist between cheese and brine and many low molecular weight
compounds (such as BAs and free amino acids) can migrate from cheese towards the brine.
In general, biogenic amines in foods are of concern in relation to both food spoilage and food safety. They
are generated either as the result of endogenous amino acid de-carboxylase activity in raw food materials, or by
the growth of decarboxylase-positive microorganisms under conditions favourable to enzyme activity. As the
microbial spoilage of food may be accompanied by the increased production of decarboxylases. The presence of
biogenic amines might serve as a useful indicator of food spoilage (Halasz et al 1994).
Conclusion:
It could be concluded that the formulation from hard cheese and strong emulsifying kusomel – 2394 was
recommended because it decreased the histamine content which cause allergies to the children. Also the
formulation hard cheese and weak kusomel 2211 was recommended in order to decrease the amount of tyramine.
Table 1: Chemical composition (%) of the ingredients used in manufacture of processed cheese.
Ingredients
Composition
Ras cheese
Cheddar cheese
Soft cheese.
T.S
Fat
Total protein
Soluble Nitrogen
Lactose
Ash
ND= Non detection
54.96
24.88
22.24
0.66
1.60
5.70
65.40
34.70
25.38
1.20
0.10
5.41
29.98
10.5
13.5
N.D.
3.0
2.1
Cow butter
84.00
82.00
N.D
N.D
N.D
N.D
Skim
powder
96.00
0.99
37.13
0.83
47.50
7.89
milk
1482
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
Table 2: Formulations of the different blends used for manufacture of processed cheese (percent)
Ingredients
Blends
1
2
3
Ras cheese
38.44
38.44
Cheddar
12.80
12.80
White cheese
64.48
Butter
10.26
10.26
12.48
S.M.P
5.12
5.12
6.45
Emulsifying strong I
2.50
1.93
Emulsifying weak II
2.50
Water
30.88
30.88
14.25
Total
100
100
100
4
64.48
12.89
6.45
1.93
14.25
100
Table 3: Chemical composition of different formulation used for manufacture of spread process cheese (percent)
Composition
Blends
1
2
3
4
T.S
44.65
44.70
44.68
44.66
Fat/ D.M
49.86
49.88
49.90
49.88
Protein
14.28
14.30
14.26
14.22
Lactose
3.00
2.95
6.05
6.06
Ash
3.92
3.97
4.01
4.03
pH
5.74
5.70
5.76
5.71
Table 4: Physical properties of different formulations used for manufacture of processed cheese.
Composition
Types
1
2
3
Pentrometer reading (mm)
150
16.2
175
Oil separation (1%)
28.11
26.00
32.55
Melting Index
90
96
155
4
181
30.33
166
Table 5: Color parameters of different formulations used formulation of processed cheese.
Composition
Blends
1
2
3
L
86.01
85.99
89.22
A
-1.58
-1.60
-1.82
B
25.29
25.33
23.91
L- Value = Whiteness
A= Value = green colour
B- Value = yellow colour
4
89.03
-1.83
23.98
Table 6: Biogenic amine contents (mg/kg) of different formulations.
Biogenic amines concentration (mg/kg)
Formulation
1
2
3
4
β- phenyethylamine
Putrescine
Cadaverine
Histamine
Tyramine
3.41
0.61
0.35
1.20
11.01
7.31
13.84
9.23
67.0
26.3
18.1
11.2
0.53
2.13
5.6
14.9
0.43
0.3
2.6
1.9
Total
biogenic
amines
82.38
36.65
40.49
38.43
of
References
Aliakbarlu, J., M. Alizadeh, S. Medhi, R. Rohani and N. Agh, 2011. Biogenic amines in Iranian white brine
cheese: modelling and optimisation of processing factors. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 64:
417-24.
Andic, S., H. Genccelep and S. Kose, 2010. Determination of biogenic amines in herby cheese. International
Journal of Food Properties, 13: 1300-1314.
Arena, M.E., J.M. Landete, M.C. Manca de Nadra, I. Pardo and S. Ferrer, 2008. Factors affecting the
production of putrescine from agmatine by Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B isolated from wine J. Appl.
Microbiol., 105: 158-165.
Bardo'cz, S., 1995. Polyamines in food and their consequences for food quality and human health. Thirds in food
science & Technology, pp: 6341-346.
Brown, C., G. Taniguchi and K. Yip, 1989. The monoamine oxidase inhibitor-tyramine interaction. J. Clin.
Pharmacol., 29: 529-532.
Caston, J.C., C.L. Eaton, B.P. Gheorghui and L.L.Ware, 2002. Tyramine induced hypertensive episodes,
panic attacks in hereditary deficient monoamine oxidase patients: case reports. J.S.C. Med. Assoc., 98:
187-192.
1483
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9(3): 1477-1483, 2013
Chander, H., V.H. Batish, S. Babu and K.L. Bhatia, 1988. Studies on optimal conditions for amine production
by E. coli. Milchwissenschaft, 43: 90-91.
Chang, S.F., J.W. Ayres and W.E. Sandine, 1985. Analysis of cheese for histamine, tyramine,
tryptamine, histidine, tyrosine and tryptophan. J. Dairy Sci., 68: 284&2S46.
Deabes, M.M., 2000.Studies on some biogenic amines in some meat and fish products with respect to other
quality attributes. Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Msc. thesis, AlAzhar University, Egypt.
Edwards, S.T. and W.E. Sandine, 1981. Public health significance of amines in cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 64: 24312438.
Fernandez, M., D.M. Linares, B. del Rio, V.Ladero and M.A. Alvarez, 2007a. HPLC quantification of
biogenic amines in cheeses: correlation with PCR-detection of tyramine-producing microorganisms. J.
Dairy Res., 74: 276-282.
Fernandez, M., D.M.Linares, A.Rodriguez and M. A. Alvarez, 2007b. Factors affecting tyramine
production in Enterococcus durans IPLA 655. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 73: 1400-1406.
Gardini, F., M. Martuscelli, M.C. Caruso, F. Galgano, M.A. Crudele and F. Favati, 2001. Effects of pH,
temperature and NaCI concentration on the growth kinetics, proteolytic activity and biogenic amine
production of Enterococcus faecalis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 64: 105-117.
Gupta, V.K. and H. Reuter, 1993. Firmness and melting quality of processed cheese foods with added whey
protein concentrates. Lait, 73: 381.
Halasz, A., A. Barath, L. Simon-Sarkadi, and W. Holzapfel, 1994. Biogenic amines and their production by
microorganisms in foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 5(2): 42-49.
Joosten, H.M.L.J. and M.D. Northolt, 1987.Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese. 1.
Decarboxylative properties of some non-starter bacteria. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 41: 259-280.
Joosten Hmlj and C. Olieman, 1986. Determination of biogenic amines in cheese and some other food products by
high performance liquid chromatograph in combination with thermo- sensitized reaction detection. Journal of
chromatography, 356: 311-319.
Ladero, V., M. Calles-Enriquez, M. Fernandez and M.A. Alvarez, 2010.Toxicological effects of dietary biogenic
amines. Curr. Nut. Food Sci., 6: 145-156.
Loizzo, M.R., F. Menichini, N. Picci, F. Puoci, G. Spizzirri and D. Restuccia, 2012. Technological aspects and
analytical determination of biogenic amines in cheese. Trends in Food Science & Technology, xx: 1-18.
Marcobal, A., P.J. Martin-Alvarez, M.V. Moreno-Arribas, R. Munoz, 2006. A multifactorial design for studying
factors influencing growth and tyramine production of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis CECT
46j59 and Enterococcus faecium BIFI-58. Res. Microbiol., 157: 417-424.
Meyer, A., 1973. Processed cheese Manufacture (1st Ed.) Food trade press Ltd., London, UK.
Mietz, J.LS' and E. Karmas, 1977. Chemical Quality index of canned tuna as determined by high - pressure
liquid chromatography J. Food Sci., 42: 155-158.
Mohamed, A.G., 2004. Studies on spreadaoie processed cheese emulsifying salts. Ph.D. Thesis.
Novella – Rodniguez, S., M.T. Veciana- Nogue's and M.C. Vidal – Carou, 2000. Biogenic amines and
polyamine in milk and cheeses by ion pair high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry, 48: 5117-5123.
Olson, N.F. and W.V. Price, 1958. A melting test for pasteurized process cheese spread. J. Dairy Sci, 41: 991.
SAS, 2004. Statistical Analysis system .SAS users Guide statistical,release 6,12 Eduction.SAS Institute
Inc.Cary.NC.USA.
Savello, P.A., C.A. Ernstrom and M. Kalab, 1989. Microstructure and meltability of model process cheese made
with rennet casein and acid casein. J. Dairy sci., 72: 1.
Ten Brink, B., C. Damink, H.M. Joosten and J.H. Huis in't Veld, 1990. Occurrence and formation of
biologically active amines in foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 11: 73-84.
Thomas, M.A., 1973. The use of hard milk fat fraction in processed cheese. Australian J. Dairy Technol., 28:
77.
Valsamaki, K., A. Michaelidou and A. Polychroniadou, 2000. Biogenic amine production in feta cheese food
chemistry, 71: 259-266.
Younis, G.C. and C.L. Hsieh, 1991. Simultaneous analysis of biogenic amines in canned fish by HPLC. J. Food
Sci., pp: 158-160.
Fly UP