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Document 2464328
Alice S. Horning is a professor in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at
Oakland University. Her research focuses on the nature of reading and writing and
recent changes to literacy resulting from technological developments. Reconnecting
Reading and Writing is her second in the Reference Guides series, following
Revision (2006). Elizabeth W. Kraemer is Associate Professor and Coordinator
of Instruction in Kresge Library at Oakland University. Her articles have appeared
in The Journal of Academic Librarianship, College & Research Libraries, The Reference
Librarian, College & Undergraduate Libraries, Information Technology and Libraries,
and College & Research Libraries News.
Reference Guides to Rhetoric & Composition
Series Editors: Charles Bazerman, Anis Bawarshi, & Mary Jo Reiff
3015 Brackenberry Drive
Anderson SC 29621
w w w.parlorpress.com
S A N: 2 5 4 - 8 8 7 9
ISBN 978-1-60235-461-6
The WAC Clearinghouse
Reconnecting Reading & Writing
Reconnecting Reading and Writing explores the ways in which reading can
and should have a strong role in the teaching of writing in college. Reconnecting
Reading and Writing draws on broad perspectives from history and international work to show how and why reading should be reunited with writing in
college and high school classrooms. It presents an overview of relevant research
on reading and how it can best be used to support and enhance writing instruction. Reconnecting Reading and Writing also examines research in such areas as basic writing, second language learning, and information literacy to integrate reading in writing classrooms, as well as the impact of the new Common
Core State Standards in K-12 schools and the digital revolution in the teaching of
reading and writing together. Reconnecting Reading and Writing also offers
practical advice on useful textbooks and appropriate classroom practices and, like
other titles in the Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition series, includes
a glossary, extensive bibliography, and index. Introduced by series editors Charles
Bazerman, Mary Jo Reiff, and Anis Bawarshi, Reconnecting Reading and
Writing includes contributions from editors Alice S. Horning and Elizabeth W.
Kraemer, Jennifer Coon, Erik D. Drake, Jimmy Fleming, William Grabe, Cynthia
R. Haller, Allison L. Harl, David A. Jolliffe, Kathleen Skomski, and Cui Zhang.
Reading &
Edited by
Alice S. Horning &
Elizabeth W. Kraemer
Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition
Series Editors: Charles Bazerman, Mary Jo Reiff, and Anis Bawarshi
Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition
Series Editors: Charles Bazerman, Mary Jo Reiff, and Anis Bawarshi
The Series provides compact, comprehensive and convenient surveys of
what has been learned through research and practice as composition has
emerged as an academic discipline over the last half century. Each volume is devoted to a single topic that has been of interest in rhetoric and
composition in recent years, to synthesize and make available the sum
and parts of what has been learned on that topic. These reference guides
are designed to help deepen classroom practice by making available the
collective wisdom of the field and will provide the basis for new research.
The Series is intended o be of use to teachers at all levels of education,
researchers and scholars of writing, graduate students learning about the
field, and all, nationally and internationally, who have interest in or responsibility for writing programs and the teaching of writing.
Parlor Press and The WAC Clearinghouse are collaborating so that these
books will be widely available through low cost print editions and free electronic distribution. The publishers and the series editors are all teachers and
researchers of writing, committed to the principle that knowledge should
freely circulate. We see the opportunities that new technologies have for
further democratizing knowledge. And we see that to share the power of
writing is to share the means for all to articulate their needs, interest, and
learning into the great experiment of literacy.
Existing Books in the Series
Invention in Rhetoric and Composition (2004, Lauer)
Reference Guide to Writing across the Curriculum (2005, Bazerman, et al.)
Revision: History, Theory, and Practice (2006, Horning and Becker)
Writing Program Administration (2007, McLeod)
Community Literacy and the Rhetoric of Local Publics (2008, Long)
Argument in Composition (2009, Ramage, et al.)
Basic Writing (2010, Otte and Mlynarczyk)
Genre: An Introduction to History, Theory, Research, and Pedagogy (2010,
Bawarshi and Reiff)
Reconnecting Reading and Writing (2013, Horning and Kraemer)
Reading and Writing
Edited by Alice S. Horning and
Elizabeth W. Kraemer
Parlor Press
Anderson, South Carolina
The WAC Clearinghouse
Fort Collins, Colorado
Parlor Press LLC, Anderson, South Carolina, USA
The WAC Clearinghouse, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1052
© 2013 by Parlor Press and The WAC Clearinghouse
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
S A N: 2 5 4 - 8 8 7 9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Reconnecting reading and writing / edited by Alice S. Horning and Elizabeth
W. Kraemer.
pages cm -- (Reference guides to rhetoric and composition)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-60235-459-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-1-60235-460-9
(hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-1-60235-461-6 (adobe ebook) -- ISBN
978-1-60235-462-3 (epub) -- ISBN 978-1-60235-463-0 (kindle)
1. Language arts. 2. Reading. I. Horning, Alice S. II. Kraemer, Elizabeth
W., 1974LB1575.8.R398 2013
Series logo designed by Karl Stolley. Copyediting by Jeff Ludwig.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Parlor Press, LLC is an independent publisher of scholarly and trade titles
in print and multimedia formats. This book is available in paper, cloth and
eBook formats from Parlor Press on the World Wide Web at http://www.
parlorpress.com or through online and brick-and-mortar bookstores. For
submission information or to find out about Parlor Press publications, write
to Parlor Press, 3015 Brackenberry Drive, Anderson, South Carolina, 29621,
or email [email protected]
The WAC Clearinghouse supports teachers of writing across the disciplines.
Hosted by Colorado State University, it brings together seven journals, several
book series, and resources for teachers who use writing in their courses. This
book will also be available in open-access format on the Web at The WAC
Clearinghouse (http://wac.colostate.edu/).
Series Editors’ Preface xi
Charles Bazerman, Mary Jo Reiff, and Anis Bawarshi
Part I: Overview
1 Reconnecting Reading and Writing:
Introduction and Overview 5
Alice S. Horning and Elizabeth W. Kraemer
Reading Abilities at Entry and Graduation 6
Reading at Entry: The ACT Reading Test 6
Reading at Graduation: Pew National Survey of
America’s College Students 7
Definitions 8
Reading 8
Writing 10
New Literacies 11
Multiliteracies 13
Information Literacy 13
More Reasons to Reconnect Reading and Writing 17
National Commission on Writing; DEEP
Study of College Success 17
Qualitative Research Supporting Reconnection:
George Mason University and University of Arkansas
Students’ Reading and Writing 18
Organizational Policy Statements 20
NCTE and IRA: Redefining the Reading/
Writing Connection? 21
College English: CCCC and CWPA 21
An Overview of the Book 23
Part I: Overview 23
Part II: Classrooms and Students 23
Part III: Contexts and Resources 24
2 A Historical and Theoretical Review of the Literature:
Reading and Writing Connections 26
Allison L. Harl
English Studies in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth
Centuries: Belles Lettres 27
The Twentieth Century 30
The Writing Process 31
Cognitive Approach 34
Expressivist Approaches 39
The Turn of the Century: The Social Turn 44
The Twenty-First Century: Technology and New Media 48
Conclusion 52
3 How Other Nations Approach Reading and Writing 55
Jennifer Coon
Globally Speaking 56
Programme for International Student Assessment 56
Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey 58
International Reports on Literacy Research 59
Reading and Writing Instruction in Italy 61
Reading and Writing Instruction in Hong Kong 63
Reading and Writing Instruction in Argentina 64
Reading and Writing Instruction in Australia 66
Conclusion 67
Part II: Classrooms and Students
4 Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum: Best
Practices and Practical Guidelines 71
Alice S. Horning
Issues and Problems in Teaching Reading with Writing 71
The Functions of Reading 75
The “Bounce off” Function 75
Reading to Imitate 78
Reading to Digest and Incorporate 78
Monday Morning Goals 80
Reading and Writing in Writing Classes Monday Morning 80
Strategy One: Understanding Reading 81
Strategy Two: Overt Teaching of Critical Reading Skills 81
Strategy Three: Modeling by Reading Aloud 82
Strategy Four: Intensive Reading Through the
Use of Reading Guides 82
Strategy Five: Discourse Synthesis 83
Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum Monday Morning 84
Strategy Six: Scaffolding with Text Apparatus 84
Strategy Seven: Scaffolding with Graphic Organizers 85
Strategy Eight: Extensive Reading for Practice 85
Strategy Nine: Learning to Read in Specific Disciplines 86
Strategy Ten: Learning to Read Critically on Screens 87
5 First Year Writers: Forward Movement,
Backward Progress 89
Kathleen Skomski
Understanding the Basic Writer 89
The Reading/Writing Connection 91
Level I: Remembering 91
Level II: Understanding 92
Level III: Applying 95
Level IV: Analyzing 97
Level V: Evaluating 98
Level VI: Creating 99
Now What? 103
Classroom Practices and Suggestions 104
6 Second Language Reading-Writing Relations 108
William Grabe and Cui Zhang
The L2 Student in the L1 English Composition Class 110
Research on L2 Reading-Writing Integration
in the Writing Classroom 113
Summary Writing 115
Synthesis Writing 118
Research Papers 121
Contrastive Rhetoric, Socialization, and Plagiarism 123
L2 Language Proficiency and the Limits on
English L2 Writing Abilities 127
Implications from L2 Research on Reading-Writing
Relations for Writing Instruction 129
7 The Common Core Standards and Preparation
for Reading and Writing in College 134
David A. Jolliffe
History and Goals of the Common Core Standards 135
Why Should College and University Faculty
Members Be Concerned? 136
The Reading Standards: In Isolation and in Relation to Writing 137
Key Ideas and Details 137
Craft and Structure 137
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 138
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 138
Key Ideas and Details 139
Craft and Structure 139
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 140
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 140
The Common Core Writing Standards: A Disconnect? 141
Issues and Concerns about the Standards in General
and about Reading in Particular 144
Preparing to Teach the Common Core Standards:
Major Challenges for Teachers 150
An Observation and a Modest Proposal 152
Note 153
Part III: Contexts and Resources
8 Reading and Writing Connections in College Composition
Textbooks: The Role of Textbook Readers 157
Jimmy Fleming
Ways of Reading and First-Year Writing 158
The Reading-Writing Connection in Textbooks 159
Ways of Seeing Textbook Readers: Reading the Apparatus 163
Rhetorical Readers: Reading as Rhetorical Invention 166
Thematic Readers: Reading for Meaning and Analysis 172
Argument Readers: Reading to Evaluate and Create Meaning 176
Writing Across the Curriculum Readers: Reading as Inquiry 179
Reading and Writing Text-to-Text: Extending the Conversation 181
Reading and Writing Text-to-Text: Literacy
and Learning Practices 184
Reading and Writing Text-to-Text: Writing about Writing 185
Why Use a Reader: The Triangulation of Students,
Teachers, and Textbooks 189
Author Acknowledgments 191
9 Reuniting Reading and Writing: Revisiting
the Role of the Library 192
Cynthia R. Haller
From Bibliographic Instruction to Information Literacy:
Changing Views of the Library 192
Reading, Research, and Writing: Conceptual and
Theoretical Connections 198
Critical Literacy: Connecting Reading, Writing,
and Disciplinary Content 205
Networking-Coordination Approaches 208
Coordination-Collaboration Approaches: Libraries
and Writing Centers 210
Collaborative Approaches: Toward an Integrated
Critical Literacy 211
Course Integrations of Information Literacy 211
Assessment-Based Initiatives 213
Sustainable Information Literacy 215
Conclusion: Opening a Blind Eye 216
Notes 219
10 Undergraduate Research and Information Literacy
in the Digital Environment 220
Erik D. Drake
Models of Information Seeking 221
Information Seeking and Information Literacy 223
Information Seeking in Digital Environments 225
Information Seeking by Academic Discipline 232
Screen-Based Reading Behaviors 234
E-readers, Reading and Writing 238
Digital Information Literacy Instruction and Libraries 242
Conclusion and Implications for Research 245
Appendix A: The Association of College and Research
Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards
for Higher Education [Excerpt] 251
Appendix B: Research-Based Recommendations for
Effective Instruction in 21st-Century Literacies:
A Policy Research Brief produced by the National
Council of Teachers of English [Excerpt] 260
Appendix C: Conference on College Composition and
Communication Position Statement on Teaching, Learning, and
Assessing Writing in Digital Environments [Excerpt] 262
Appendix D: Writing Program Administrators’ First
Year Writing Outcomes [Excerpt] 266
Appendix E: Common Core Standards in English
Language Arts [Excerpts] 269
Appendix F: Other Writing Textbooks of Note 275
Glossary 279
References 285
Contributors 313
About the Editors 315
Index 317
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