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The Influence of Different Personality Types of Ordinary University

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The Influence of Different Personality Types of Ordinary University
M & D FORUM
The Influence of Different Personality Types of Ordinary University
Students on Constitutional Health Index
WANG Junqing, CHEN Lun
Department of Physical Education, Hebei University of Science and Technology, 050018
[email protected]
Abstract: The mass teenagers should be healthy physically and psychologically, have strong body and
will power and be full of vitality. This embodies the vigorous vitality of a nation, is the mark of progress
in social civilization and an important aspect of overall national strength. This research takes 300
students of science & engineering and 300 students of arts in ordinary universities of Hebei Province as
the research objects and adopts many research methods such as documentation consultation method,
questionnaire survey, and mathematical statistics. Through testing the personality type and health index,
etc. of students of science & engineering and arts, we get to know the health index difference of students
with different specialties and characters. The research results show that: (1) Specialties and genders are
obviously different. For instable extroverts, girls are more than boys; for instable introverts, boys are
more than girls. Instable introverts have the worst psychological condition, while stable extroverts have
the best psychological condition. (2) The physical strength of students of science & engineering is better
than that of arts students; the pulmonary capacity and weight index of arts students is better than that of
students of science & engineering. (3) The constitutional health has relatively close relation with
students’ temperament type and sports they participate in, and there is no obvious difference between
boys and girls. As for study, stable extroverts do the best and then stable introverts, instable extroverts
follow; and instable introverts do the worst.
Keywords: University Student, Personality Type, Health Index, Influence, Eysenck Personality
Questionnaire
1 Pose Problems
The developing tendency of China in 21st century is closely related to the growth and development of
university students. We should attach great importance to the physical education of teenagers; the
teenagers should be healthy physically and psychologically, have strong body and will power and be full
of vitality. This embodies the vigorous vitality of a nation, is the mark of progress in social civilization
and an important aspect of overall national strength [1]. Therefore, the top priority for the modern
universities to cultivate students who develop morally, intellectually and physically is strengthening
personality education of university students, strengthening their constitution and deepening
quality-oriented education with university students’ all-round development as the objective. In resent
years, as the study and employment pressure of university students increases, people pay more attention
to the constitutional health and psychological health of university students. Many scholars have made
much research on the psychological health and constitutional health of university students and proposed
some preventive measures and exercising means. However, personality difference of students with
different specialties is less involved; especially the research on the influence of personality difference on
constitutional health index is even less. This thesis takes students of science & engineering and arts in
some universities of Hebei Province as research objects. It researches the influence of personality
difference of students with different specialties on health index so as to take effective intervening
measures and scientific exercising methods in university physical education and improve students’
psychological health and constitutional health index.
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2 Research Object and Method
2.1 Research Object
Research objects of this thesis are 300 students of science & engineering and 300 students of arts who
were enrolled in Hebei University of Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University and Hebei
University of Economics and Business in 2007 or 2008. On the basis that we have explained this
research clearly to them, we conduct questionnaire survey and tests of constitutional health indexes.
2.2 Research Method
2.2.1 Documentation Consultation Method
We obtain the documentation related to this research by searching on the internet and retrieving
periodical indexes and other methods. In addition, we have carefully studied the journals of many
physical education universities of China and also consulted many materials about sports psychology,
pedagogy in physical education, constitutional health, sports statistics, etc. In this way, we get to know
the theories, methods, ideas and advanced level of Chinese and foreign scholars in the related research.
We also pick up the materials related to this research through analysis and summary so as to lay a solid
foundation for this research.
2.2.2 Questionnaire Survey
We conduct questionnaire survey for students of science & engineering and arts who were enrolled in
Hebei University of Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University and Hebei University of
Economics and Busines in 2007 or 2008. In this research, we issued 600 questionnaires and took back
591 copies (294 from students of science & engineering, 297 from arts); the recovery rate is 98.5%. We
have 586 effective research objects which account for 97.7% of research objects.
2.2.2.1 Test Scale
The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) is prepared by Eysenck (English) who worked in
Department of Psychological Sciences of University of London and the Institute of Psychiatry. The
version with 88 questions, which has been revised by Gong Yaoxian and et al, are applied in this survey.
Each question has two answers: “Yes” or “No”. With excellent reliability and validity, this is one of the
most widely applied questionnaires in education, psychiatric consulting and other fields [2].
2.2.2.2 Scoring Method of the Scale
As a self-rating questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire contains 88 items that influence
the personality of the student. Its statistical indexes include extroversion and introvertsion (E),
psychoticism (P), neuroticism (N) and lie (L). In the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, when the N and
E scales are combined in double dimension, an orthogonal coordinate will be formed with E as X-axis
and N as Y-axis. In this way, the four quadrants are formed: stable extrovert (sanguine), unstable
extrovert (choleric), stable introvert (phlegmatic), and unstable introvert (melancholic).Taking the four
quadrants as the point of penetration, this thesis mainly studies the students with different personalities.
2.2.3 Method of Mathematical Statistics: input the recollected information into the computer to carry out
mathematical statistics and adopt SPSS11.0 software to process data. The average and standard
deviation shall be calculated; the T test shall be conducted. Finally, the conclusion will be obtained.
3 Result and Analysis
3.1 Personality Test of Students by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
Personality characteristics, also called individual mental characteristics, are the intrinsic, frequent and
stable mental characteristics presented by individuals. The personality test of students by Eysenck
Personality Questionnaire shows: the unstable introverts account for 6.31%, and unstable extroverts
7.0%. In the real world, the psychological health is vulnerable to the two personality types. In addition,
of unstable extroverts, the male and female occupy 6.43% and 7.64% respectively, and the proportion of
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the female is greater than that of the male; of unstable introverts, the male and female occupy 7.40 %
and 5.09 % respectively, and the proportion of the male is greater than that of the female; of all students,
the intermediate type is the most, accounting for 52.39%; for the extroverts, the students of science &
engineering accounts for 12.63%, the students of arts 13.82% which is greater than that of students of
science engineering; for introverts, the students of science & engineering accounts for 10.92%, the
students of arts 10.24% which is lower than that of students of science engineering (See table 1).
Table 1 Personality Test Results of Students of Science & Engineering and Arts
Category
Science &
Engineering
Arts
Male
Female
Male
Female
Total
Stable
Extrovert
(Sanguine)
(18.14%)
(19.48%)
(19.79%)
(20.70%)
39
15
19
41
114
Unstable
Extrovert
(Choleric)
Intermediate
Type
(6.51%) 114(53.02%)
(7.79%) 40(51.96%)
(6.25%) 51(53.13%)
(7.58%) 102(51.52%)
14
6
6
15
41
307
Stable
Introvert
(Phlegmatic)
Unstable
Introvert
(Melancholic)
32
12
13
30
16
4
7
10
(14.88%)
(15.58%)
(13.54%)
(15.15%)
87
(7.45%)
(5.19%)
(7.29%)
(5.05%)
37
Total
215
77
96
198
586
This shows that the university students have different personality characteristics. Of them, the students
with different specialties and genders are different in personality characteristics. The students of science
& engineering are introverted, since they are rigorous, serious, responsible, rational, positive and
optimistic, etc.; the students of arts are extroverted, since they are sensible, good at associating, easy to
cooperate and eager for excitement. Besides, in modern society, people’s living standard has been
improved generally, so that the children are spoiled by excessive compromises in most family.
Consequently, some boys are shy, sensitive and timid, and they are overcautious to get on with others
and easy to feel anxious; some girls become enthusiastic, extroverted, relaxed, excited and brave, and
have little anxiety and take things as they are. Therefore, the boys and girls have double personalities.
Thus, the colleges and universities should grasp the personality characteristics of contemporary students,
educate and guide them at proper time so as to make their personalities adapt to their future career.
3.2 Test of Student Health Index
National Standards for Student Constitutional Health is an educational mode to promote the
development of students’ constitutional health and to stimulate them to do physical exercise actively and
an individual evaluation criterion of students’ constitutional health [3]. In order to know the constitutional
health of students of science & engineering and arts, test results of the National Standards for Student
Constitutional Health of chosen students with different specialties are obtained with the help of the
Departments of Physical Education of Hebei University of Science and Technology, Hebei Normal
University and Hebei University of Economics and Business (see table 2). The content of the specific
tests include strength quality (medicine ball for male and sit-ups for the female); speed quality (standing
jump); endurance quality (the male: 1000 m, the female: 800m); height, weight and pulmonary capacity.
The research results show: after the test for them, the students of science & engineering have higher
scores that the students of arts in the strength quality tests (medicine ball, sit-ups, etc.); the students of
science & engineering have lower scores than the students of arts in the speed quality test (standing
jump) and endurance quality tests (1000m or 800m); In the strength quality test and endurance quality
test, the students of science & engineering and arts have significant difference (P<0.01). In the speed
quality test, they have slight difference (P<0.05); the results of pulmonary capacity of the two groups of
students have significant difference. In weight and height, they have no significant difference.
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Table 2 Test Results of Health Index of Students of Science & Engineering and Arts (Male)
Pulmonary
Medicine Ball,
Standing Jump, 1000m
Height,
Weight,
Category
Capacity
m
cm
s
cm
kg
ml
Science &
8.9
243
231
175
71
3264

Engineering
S
1.05
14.23
23.15
9.73
8.25
103
(215 Persons)
Arts
(96 Persons)
T
P

8.5
247
220
173
73
3348
S
0.83
3.64
<0.01
16.45
2.06
<0.05
19.83
4.28
<0.01
8.25
1.71
>0.05
9.47
1.79
>0.05
145
5.12
<0.01
In the teaching of university physical education, the teacher should highlight students' physical exercise
and make the students understand the importance of "To civilize the spirit must build the body first" and
overcome the sub-health state resulted from the overpressure of study, sleep insufficiency, overnutrition
and others. In exercise, teachers should aim at students of different disciplines and instruct them to
select different exercising methods and contents for scientific exercise. For instance, for students of arts,
they need to strengthen the physical strength to improve the power of their limbs and abdominal muscles;
for students of science, they need to strengthen their speed and physical endurance in order to improve
their ability in running and aerobic metabolic capacity. Only by adopting effective means and methods,
can we comprehensively promote the improvement of the health level of students of different
specialties.
Table 3 Test Results of Health Index of Students of Science & Engineering and Arts (Female)
Pulmonary
Category
Sit-Ups
Standing Jump
800m
Height
Weight
Capacity
Science &
38
184
225
161
56
2861

Engineering
S
6.37
11.31
15.37
8.39
7.83
95
(77 Persons)
Arts
34
187
217
163
57
2923

(198 Persons)
S
5.24
9.45
12.56
8.46
7.66
102
T
4.88
2.33
4.08
1.77
0.96
4.76
P
<0.01
<0.05
<0.01
>0.05
>0.05
<0.01
3.3 Influence of Different Personality Types on Health Indexes
The students who are extroverted in character are usually energetic, optimistic, lively, quick in response
and strong in athletic ability; while, the students introverted are unsociable and timid in character, slow
and clumsy in speech, thinking and action, and weak in athletic ability. Therefore, the personality is an
important factor of influencing health indexes. By research, Vingerhoers (1990) argues that, the people
who never exercise are obviously higher in nervosity, hostility, social phobia than those who exercise
one or two times a week, and show a lower level in self esteem. Therefore, the students actively exercise
show more stable personality tendency, and their score is significantly lower on psychoticism (P), strong
in athletic ability and high in health index.
From Table 4 and 5, we can conclude that, whether male or female students, stable extroverts have
higher level on the strength, speed and physical endurance, those who are of the intermediate type are
more standard; and there is a significant difference (P<0.01) between the stable extrovert and the
intermediate type. The instable introverts have the lowest aptitude level, and there is a big difference
(P<0.01) compared with the intermediate type. An obvious difference exists among the unstable
extroverts and stable introverts and the intermediate type students, but no obvious difference on height
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and standard body weight (P>0.05).
Table 4 Influence of Different Personality Types on Health Index (Male)
Category
Medicine Ball
Standing Jump

8.95
9.51

251
256
S
1.18
0.73
S
4.83
3.15
The Intermediate Type
Stable Extrovert
T
4.31
8.93
P
<0.01
<0.01
Unstable Extrovert
8.42
1.41
248
5.03
T
3.79
2.52
P
<0.01
<0.05
Stable Introvert
8.53
1.06
245
4.97
T
2.33
7.23
P
<0.05
<0.01
Unstable Introvert
7.55
1.37
243
5.72
T
4.67
6.40
P
<0.01
<0.01
Note: The comparison among Stable Extrovert and Unstable
Intermediate Type
1000m

224
215
S
10.52
6.47
7.63
<0.01
229
9.35
2.04
<0.05
233
7.62
6.43
<0.01
235
6.33
4.56
<0.01
Extrovert, Stable
Pulmonary
Capacity
Weight Index
S
S


22.5 3.57
76.82
5.42
21.7 5.43 80.43
4.15
1.04
5.24
>0.05
<0.01
22.6 4.37
73.32
6.83
1.05
2.20
>0.05
<0.05
22.9 4.63
69.55
5.65
0.54
7.73
>0.05
<0.01
23.1 3.29
63.87
6.71
0.79
8.87
>0.05
<0.01
Introvert & Unstable Introvert and
Height
SBW
Table 5 Influence of Different Personality Types on Health Index (Female)
Pulmonary
Capacity
Category
Weight Index
S
S
S
S
S





The Intermediate Type
37
1.87
189
4.32
227
7.81
21.5 1.77 61.76
5.17
Stable Extrovert
38
1.29
193
3.82
223
6.20
21.1 2.44 65.82
4.33
T
4.26
6.35
3.77
1.11
5.62
P
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
>0.05
<0.01
Unstable Extrovert
35
2.76
186
5.75
230
7.97
22.3 1.86 58.47
5.56
T
3.21
2.28
2.29
1.86
2.55
P
<0.01
<0.05
<0.05
>0.05
<0.05
Stable Introvert
36
2.53
182
5.14
235
6.85
21.9 1.93 55.53
5.37
T
2.38
8.05
6.45
1.21
6.63
P
<0.05
<0.01
<0.01
>0.05
<0.01
Unstable Introvert
33
2.53
179
5.41
238
8.32
22.2 2.17 50.29
6.83
T
5.76
6.71
4.74
1.17
6.10
P
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
>0.05
<0.01
Note: The comparison among Stable Extrovert and Unstable Extrovert, Stable Introvert & Unstable Introvert and
Intermediate Type
Sit-Ups
Standing Jump
800m
Height
SBW
Therefore, the physical education curriculum of universities should follow the spirit of The Sports
Teaching Guidelines of National Ordinary Higher Education. The teaching plan should aim at the
characteristics of the students of different specialties and personalities. Accordingly, it needs to adopt
different grouping methods and teaching forms, to apply different teaching means and measures and to
carry out various forms of exercises progressively and repeatedly in order to strengthen their interest in
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study and enhance their confidence in study. In addition, it needs to encourage the students who have
special talents and sufficient energy to improve their sports skill level and develop their own sports
talents. Therefore, in teaching, the teachers should carefully observe the students' characters and
characteristics and make them participate in the sunshine physical education so as to improve their
aptitude and health level and realize the objective of physical education curriculum.
4 Conclusion and Suggestions
4.1 Conclusion
4.1.1 The university students have different characters and characteristics, and hence significant
difference exists on the mental health status of the different genders of students. On the proportion of
unstable extroverts, the female is higher than male; on the proportion of unstable introverts, the male is
higher than female; these two types of characters have the biggest influence on the mental health. The
unstable introverts (melancholy) are the poorest on the metal health, and the stable extroverts
(sanguineous) are the best.
4.1.2 In constitutional health test, the students of arts are superior to the students of science on the speed
and stamina diathesis; while in the power test, the students of science are superior to the students of arts;
on the pulmonary capacity and weight indexes, the students of arts are superior to the students of
science.
4.1.3 Constitutional health is closely relevant to the character type and the participated sports items, and
there is no significant difference between male and female. The sanguineous students are the best in the
study; the students of phlegmatic and bilious temperament are minor; and the students of melancholic
temperament are the worst.
4.2 Suggestions
4.2.1 In teaching, the teachers should adopt different teaching content and methods for teaching and
training according to the characteristics of the students of different specialties and characters so as to
enhance the students' aptitudes and health indexes.
4.2.2 For different specialties and stages of students who are apt to have psychological problems, we
shall guide them along their course of development and carry out healthy prevention education. For
unstable introverts and unstable extroverts, we shall give special attentions. In teaching, we shall
cultivate the students’ optimistic attitude toward life and friendly and harmonious interpersonal
relationship so as to promote the university students' physical and mental development and make them
adapt to the increasingly fierce market competition of current society and serve the society better.
References
[1]. Opinions on Strengthening the Youth Sports and Enhancing the Youth Constitution issued by State
Council [S]. Beijing: General Office of the CPC Central Committee, May, 2007 in Chinese
[2]. Manual of Behavioral Medicine Scale [M]. China Behavioral Medicine Association. 2005, (8): 37
in Chinese
[3]. Shu Da. Operational Practices of National Standards for Student Constitution Health [M]. Beijing:
Kaiming Press, 2008:3 in Chinese
[4]. You Jin, Guo Yongyu. Relationship among the University Student's Personality, Social Support and
Subjective Well-being [J]. Psychology and Behavior Research, 2007 (1): 28-29 in Chinese
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