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The Greatest Generation; Whips
the Depression; Saves the World
• America has survived the
Great Depression only to
see the entire world
rocked by the actions of
Hitler, Mussolini, and
• World War II pulled the
U.S. out of the economic
depression that had
plagued the entire world
for a decade. A vast
economic machine was
created, employing
millions of U.S. workers.
The rise of Nazism, Fascism and
• Treaty of Versailles
– German reparations to
Britain and France
– Germany’s lack of access
to its former industrial
– Germany’s forced
acceptance of war guilt
• World-wide Depression
– European nations inability
to pay U.S. loans
– FDR’s distance from
U.S./European cooperation
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
– An Austrian who would later
promote the idea of the
supremacy of the “German
– Nazi party leader; coup of 1923
– Went to Jail for trying to
overthrow the Government
– Wrote Mein Kampf (My
Struggle) Blamed Communists
and Jews for WWI loss. Outline
Germany’s rise to power
– 1933; Chancellor of Germany
(elected by one vote)
• Parliament grants Hitler
dictatorial powers
– 1934; Hitler publicly announced
his intention to disregard the
Versailles Treaty
Hitler’s goals
In defiance of the agreements at
Versailles, Hitler begins a
massive military and
rearmament program.
Spread of Nazi Propaganda
billboards radio
Wanted revenge for Germanys
loss in WWI
– Stimulated the German
– Renounces reparations
agreement that Germany
had already ceased
– Hitler plans to establish
German world domination
Anti-Semitism in Germany
• Banned Jews and nonNazis from Government
• Seized their property
• 1935 Government assigned
Jews a lower class of citizen
• 1938 Kristallnacht “Night of
Broken Glass” Throughout
Germany…Nazis destroyed
Jewish businesses and
synagogues. 91 Jews killed,
7,500 Jewish businesses
were demolished, 177
synagogues destroyed.
Fascism and Benito Mussolini
• Fascism-Strong Government
headed by one individual
• Italy falls under the sway of
Benito Mussolini and his
fascist program of state and
military domination of the
economy. Mussolini, held in
contempt by Hitler, would soon
form an alliance with Hitler and
engage in imperialistic designs
on the world beginning with
North Africa.
• Mussolini would invade
Ethiopia in 1935.
• Joined Germany in 1936 to
form Axis Powers
Axis Powers
• Germany
• Italy Joins 1936
• Japan Joined 1941
Germany on the Move
• 1936 German troops reoccupy the Rhineland. Defied
the Treaty of Versailles
• March 1938 Annexed Austria
• 1938 Wanted the Sudetenland
in Czechoslovakia
• Threatened war
• Munich Conference- Leaders
from France and Great Britain
(Neville Chamberlain) met.
Gave the Sudetenland to
Germans in order to preserve
• “Last territorial claim I have to
make in Europe” -Hitler
• March 1939- Seized the rest of
Poland and Blitzkrieg
• Joseph Stalin- leader of
• Nonaggression Pact-Germany
and Russia would not attack
one another and would divide
• Sept.1939 Germany invaded
Poland. Overtaken in Month
• Blitzkrieg- “Lightning war”
Quick surprise strikes
overwelming their opponent
• Allied Powers-Britain and
France declared war on
Germany Sweeps across Europe
• 1940 German troops
Belgium, Denmark,
Norway, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Northern
• Maginot Line-Fortified
wall that France built
along its border
French troops behind
the line
France and Great Britain
May 1940 Invaded France. In
June- French surrendered.
Went through the Ardennes
Soldiers fled to port town
Dunkirk. French-British soldiers
were trapped. Saved by the
Winston Churchill British Prime
Battle of Britain July 1940
Royal Air Force (RAF) Britain's
elite air force fought off British
Radar and Enigma (Code
breaking device) helped Britain
May 1941 Hitler called off the
Americans and Isolationism
• As a result of W.W.I, the
American people would view
the growing militarism of
Germany and Italy with
suspicion but deeply resented
the troubles that Europe was
unable to resolve.
• Between 1935 and 1937
Congress passed Neutrality
Acts-illegal to sell arms or lend
money to nations at war
• 1939 “Cash and Carry”
System-Allies buy U.S.
weapons with cash and carry
them back to Europe on their
own ships
More Isolationism
• Roosevelt wins third term
in 1940
• “Your boys are not going
to be sent into foreign
• March1941 Congress
passed Lend-Lease ActLoaned $7 Billion worth of
weapons and supplies to
• 1941 Germany attacks
Soviet Union. Broke the
Non-Aggression Pact
• 1941 Lend-Lease to
U.S. Ocean Battle
• Battle of the Atlantic-Control
ocean trade
• U.S. Navy escorted British
Ships carrying U.S. supplies
• Germans tried to stop trade
from U.S. & Britain by sinking
the ships with submarines and
• Sept. 4th Germans U-Boat fired
on U.S. destroyer.
• Roosevelt order to “shoot on
• Atlantic Charter-Between U.S.
Britain wouldn’t acquire new
territory work for peace after
Japan, the Pacific and Pearl Harbor
– Seeking domination of the
Pacific/recover from the
depression/need for natural
– Invaded Manchuria; 1931/
League of Nations
disapproves led to
European imperialism by
Germany & Italy
– China; 1937 Nanjing Beijing
– Set sights on American
controlled Philippines and
U.S. sent aid to China
U.S. drifts into war in the Pacific
• Japanese took over French
Indochina-Vietnam, Cambodia,
and Laos July 1941
• U.S. embargoes oil and fuel
and other goods to Japan;
• By September 1941, after
many additional materials were
embargoed, only oil could be
sent to Japan. Japan would
not withdraw from China and
seized French Indochina
(Vietnam) in late 1940.
• July of 1941, FDR froze all
Japanese assets in the U.S.
Pearl Harbor “A day of Infamy”
• Military leaders
intercepted a coded
message that said an
attack was coming. But
didn’t know when
• December 7th. 1941
• Japanese conducted a
surprise attack of Pearl
Harbor in Hawaii
• The attack lasted two
More Pearl Harbor
• 2,300 Americans died
• 1,100 wounded
• 19 ships sunk including
U.S.S. Arizona
• Next Day Roosevelt
declared it “A day which
will live in infamy”
• Congress accepted his
request for a declaration
of war against Japan and
its allies
World War II Homefront
1940- Selective Training and
Service Act-First peacetime
draft in U.S. History At first 2135….then 18-38
16 Million Americans, 1 million
African Americans. 300,000
Mexican Americans served in
the military.
Going to war; Mobilization
– War Production Board 1942
• Centralized industrial
planning to convert from
a peacetime production
economy to a war
• regulate the production
and allocation of
materials and fuel
…and more mobilization
• Agriculture demand-fed U.S.
and Allies as well
• Factories converted to military
machine Built ships, planes,
• Production stopped on civilian
items-automobiles, new
houses, and new appliances
• Unemployment disappeared
• Long hours
Sports and War
• Ted Williams Boston Red Sox/
Pilot-Flight Instructor. Served
in WWII and Korean War
• Joe DiMaggio-New York
Yankees/ Phys. Ed Instructor
drawing $43,500 from the
Yankees, trades in his salary
for the $50 a month as an
army enlisted man.
• Bob Feller-Cleveland Indians
• Hank Greenberg-Detroit Tigers
• Joe Louis-Boxer Army private
Wars cost money…
• War bonds- Paid for from
the public for war use
• Taxes- 40% of the war
was paid for with taxes
– Taxes were raised
– Tax base broadened and
tax rates raised
– First time middle class &
lower class paid income tax
– Corporate taxes and
excess profits tax
– 1st time that most
Americans paid any
income tax
…and more money
• Taxes paid under half of the
cost of war; the rest was paid
through deficit spending.
• War led to virtually full
employment and many twoincome families. Consumer
demand down, savings rose,
and a pent-up consumer
demand would boost post-war
spending habits.
• Growth of national govt.
• Business/government
The war, affecting the lives of
millions of Americans, did not
affect directly from a military
standpoint the American
people. Our country never
suffered casualties or battles on
the home-front.
War time propaganda movies
billboards-inspiring morale at
Office of War Information
– Provided news to the
public/obviously slanted
War Bonds- type of a savings
bond given for use during a
• Rationing- of goods and
materials for military use
gasoline, heating oil, metals,
rubber, and plastics
• meat, sugar, butter, coffee,
tires, shoes and clothing
• Blackouts- throughout the
nation save electricity and
avoid being seen
• Many Americans moved during
the war from farms to small
towns, from small towns to
larger urban areas. Some
estimates place the number as
high as 15 to 18 million people
moved during the war.
• The primary motivation for
most folks was the search for
job opportunities, especially in
defense-industry related jobs.
• Folks generally moved north
and west.
Effects of the movements of
• Housing Shortage
• -up consumer demand
– Rationing
– Shift from peace-time to
war-time economy
• Families, babies and sex
– Marriage rates increased
– Divorce rates rose
Women and the Workforce
A increased labor demand
allowed women many
opportunities in defenseindustry related jobs that
previously were to closed to
them. Many of the new female
workers were married.
– Many men drafted into the
– Unemployment among men
was virtually non-existent.
Women worked for less wages
for men doing the identical job.
Rosie the Riveter-American
Propaganda promoting female
In 1940, only 10% of women
who worked were employed by
factories, but by 1944, the figure
was up to 30%.
Women in the Military
• 300,000 Women worked
in the armed forces
• Army and Navy nurses
served in combat areas
• Organizations such as
Women’s Auxiliary Army
Corps (WAAC), Women’s
Airforce Service Pilots
(WASP) were formed
World War II Propaganda
World War II Propaganda
• Billboard, advertising,
• Used to boost morale
and inspire
• Portray enemy as evil
• Sell War Bonds
• Ration
Entertainment on the home front
• Radio
– Increase in news
coverage of the war
– Music entertainment
– Serials
• Movies
– Almost 100 million
viewers a week
– Westerns, war movies
– Movie previews
showed news
documentaries of the
World War II Europe North Africa
Axis Invades North Africa
• Sept.1940 Italy Invades Egypt
to gain control of the Suez
Canal. Fought British
• Feb. 1941 British take 130,000
Italian prisoners
• March 1941 Germany sends
Erwin Rommel-”Desert Fox”
leader of Afrika Korps German
Tank Force to bail out Italians
• June 1942 Germans would
force British to Tobruk Libyan
• Afrika Korps would advance
further into Egypt
German defeat in Egypt
• Battle of El AlameinNovember 1942
British forces stopped
Rommel. Led by
British General
Bernard Montgomery
• Montgomery and
Eisenhower forced
out of Africa.
• May 1943 Afrika
Korps surrendered
Allies Take Italy
• Churchhill called Italy the
enemy’s “soft underbelly”
• June 1943 Allies took Sicily
• Advanced to Italy’s mainland
• Italy government overthrew
• Germans came in to save Italy,
put Mussolini back in charge
• By late April 1945, they drove
the Germans out of Italy
• April 27, 1945 Italian
resistance fighters ambushed
German truck outside of Milan.
Mussolini was disguised as a
German soldier. Shot him and
hung him in downtown Milan
Turning Points Europe
1942 Battle of StalingradGermany tried to take the city of
Harsh winter combat-coldest
winter in 30 years
Soviet reinforcements arrived
and surrounded the German
Supplies ran low on the
Axis lost 200,000 soldiers in the
Kursk- German loss in a tank
Turning point in the war.
Germans retreated back the
D-Day and France
Operation Overlord-plan to re-take
Massive landing on the beaches of
Normandy in northern France
June 6, 1944 D-Day 150,000 Allied
soldiers hit the beaches of Normandy
Attack last months
General George Patton broke through
the German lines in July
Allied forces attack from southern
France and headed North
Dwight David Eisenhower
– Supreme Allied Commander of the
forces in Europe
The second front that the U.S.S.R. had
been promised in 1942, leaving the
U.S.S.R. the only force in Europe for
over three years.
Normandy and France
Bombing of German cities
Battle of the Bulge
• Dec 1944 Hitler launched
a counterattack in the
• Located in Ardenne
Forest Germans attacked
Allies in heavy snow
• 77,000 U.S. casualties
• Allies reinforcements
• Ended Germany’s ability
to wage offensive war
Victory in Europe
• March 1945 Allies crossed the
• Soviets advanced westward
• April 30, 1945 Hitler committed
suicide in an underground
bunker in Berlin
• May 8, 1945 Germany
• Declared V-E (Victory in
Europe) Day
• April 12 1945 Pres. Roosevelt
died of a stroke.
• Harry Truman took over as
Pacific Theater
Battle of the Coral Sea
• May 1942
• Code breakers discovered
Japanese planned to capture
Port Moresby, New Guinea
• Allies cut them off
• New military strategy was
used. Planes attacked the
boats, not boats attacking
• Japanese planes sunk U.S.
carrier Lexington and
damaged Yorktown.
• Allies had stopped the
Japanese advance for the first
Battle of Midway
• Island of Midway 1,500 miles
west of Hawaii
• Navy code breakers learned
the Japanese planned to seize
• Americans allowed Japanese
to attack island, while they
attacked the Japanese carriers
• June 3 and 6, aircraft carrierbased airplanes
• U.S. sunk four carriers…. lost
• Japanese was on the
defensive for the remainder of
the war
1943 U.S. plan to conquer one
Pacific island after another,
moving closer to Japan.
Attack islands that weren’t heavily
defended but closer to Japan
General Douglas MacArthurleader of the Pacific Campaign
General MacArthur battled the
Japanese on New Guinea
Others on the Gilbert Islands
Tarawa in Gilberts
Marshall, Mariana, Volcano, and
Bonin Islands
Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas
Battle of Guadalcanal
• U.S. Military learned that
Japan was building a
huge air base on
• August 7, 1942 with the
help of Australia attacked
• Six months of fighting
• Feb 1943 Battle was over
Allied victory. Japan lost
24,000 of 36,000 troops.
Liberating the Phillippines
• Oct. 1944 Battle of Leyte
• Largest naval
engagement in history
• Japan risked its entire
Pacific fleet.
• They wanted to destroy
the American fleet
• Led by General
MacArthur another U.S.
win within four days
• Allied forces advanced
toward Manila Jan. 1945
Final Battles
• Japanese refused to quit
• Feb.1945 Battle for Iwo Jima
6,000 U.S. casualties 22,000
• April 1945 Battle of Okinawa
three months of hard fighting
• Japanese combated with the
use of Kamikaze pilotsSuicidal missions crashing into
Allied ships
• Kamikaze pilots killed 4,000
Allied sailors
• 110,000 Japanese troops died
80,000 civilians
• Allies 11,000 dead 33,000
• Holocaust-Hitler and Nazis’
attempt to exterminate Jews
from Europe
• 1938- Nazis wrote laws that
stripped German Jews of their
civil rights, jobs, and property.
• Forced them to move or
imprisoned the remaining.
• Kristallnacht- Forced Jews to
become refugees and move to
other countries.
• France, Britain, and United
States closed their doors to
further immigration.
• German expansion in
Europe brought many
more Jews under Hitler’s
• Thousands lived in
France, Low Countries,
and eastern Europe.
• Millions lived in Poland
and Soviet Union
• Hitler and other highranking Nazis thought it
was impractical to
imprison everyone
Other Ways
• In German-controlled
countries, Nazi’s uprooted
Jews and forced them into
urban areas called Ghettos.
Ghettos were sealed off with
barbed wire and stone walls.
Germans hoped they would
die of starvation or disease
• Some formed resistance
groups within the Ghettos.
• Life in the Ghettos- Secret
schools, theaters produced
plays and concerts.
• Germans used EinsatzgrupenGerman killing squads
• 1941 Einsatzgrupen shot
• End 1941- they killed 600,000
Wannsee Conference
• Nazi officials met
• Hitler grew impatient with
the Ghetto situation.
• Officials agreed on the
“final solution to the
Jewish question”
• Genocide-Deliberate
murder of an entire
• SS (Hitler’s elite security
force) hunted down Jews
town to town
Concentration Camps
• By mid-1942 Jews
rounded up and brought
to camps packed in
railroad boxcars
• Given a number, sorted
by age, sex, and health
• Physically fit Jews were
sent to work slave labor
in camp factories
Concentration Camps Continued…
• Women, children, elderly,
weak and sick were sent
to gas chambers
• With the chambers, Nazis
could kill as many as
6,000 people a day.
• Performed Experiments
on victims
• Auschwitz-In Poland,
largest extermination
Concentration Camps Discovered
• Allies began to liberate
the camps in early 1945,
many survivors were too
weak or ill to move.
• 6 Million Jews 2/3 of
Jews living in Europe
• Gypsies, Slavs, political
and religious radicals,
homosexuals, the insane,
the disabled, ill, and
others were also killed.
Jewish Death Toll
Original Jewish
Jews Killed
Soviet Union
Japanese Internment
Japanese Living in U.S.
• 1941-125,000 people of
Japanese descent lived in
United States
• Issei- Immigrants born in
• Nisei-Full citizens who
had been born in the
United States
• After Pearl Harborcitizens questioned the
loyalty of Nisei and Issei
• Fear of spying or
Japanese Prejudice
• Most JapaneseAmericans lived in Hawaii
and West Coast. 1941
125,000 lived in U.S.
• Post-Pearl Harbor
prejudice regarding
• Americans were
• Propaganda depicted
Japanese as “the enemy”
and in a bad light
Japanese Internment
• Feb. 19, 1942 Roosevelt
issued an executive order
calling for the internment of
Japanese Americans because
they were considered a threat
to the country.
• Internment-forced relocation
and imprisonment
• March 1942-Military began
rounding up “aliens” and
shipping them to relocation
• Citizens sold their homes and
Internment Camps
• Located mostly in West
Coast in Military areas.
• Japanese-feared they
would help their home
country through spying or
• 2/3 of those interned
were Nisei, native-born
American citizens whose
parents were Japanese
• Cold nights Internees
were not prepared
• Cots for beds
• 45 cents a day for
food rations
• Could stay with your
• Make-shift schools
Japanese American internment
policies in Arizona
• Gila River, AZ
Opened July 20, 1942.
Closed November 10,
Peak Population 13,348.
• Poston, AZ - Opened
May 8, 1942. Closed
November 28, 1945.
Peak population 17,814
Japanese in Military
• Still volunteered for
military service
• Served as interpreters
and translators
Atomic Bomb
Atomic Bomb
• 1942 Allied scientists had
working on a secret program to
develop an atomic bombManhattan Project
• Project headed by General
Leslie Groves Chief Scientist
J. Robert Oppenheimer
• July 16, 1945 worlds first
atomic bomb was released in
the desert near Alamogordo,
New Mexico
• Melted the desert sand into
glass for 800 yards in all
• Truman warned the Japanese
that unless they surrendered,
they could expect a “rain of
ruin from the air”
• Japanese didn’t reply
Atomic Bomb
• President Truman-”the most
terrible thing ever discovered”
• Truman struggled with the
decision to use the bomb
• Truman’s advisers informed
him that an invasion of Japan
could cost the allies half a
million lives
• Battle of Okinawa influenced
• 3 ½ years of fighting
• U.S. Casualties 400,000
• August 6, 1945 B-29
bomber Enola Gay
dropped atomic bomb
on Hiroshima
• Killed between 70,000
and 80,000 instantly
• Thousands more died
later because of
burns and radiation
• August 9, 1945
• Second bomb
dropped on Nagasaki
• Killed 70,000 instantly
• September 2, 1945
Japan surrendered
Impact of Bombing
Ground Temperatures
7,000 F.
Hurricane Force Winds
980 Miles per hour
Energy Released
20,000 tons of TNT
Buildings Destroyed
62,000 buildings
Killed Immediately
70,000 People
Dead by the end of 1945 140,000 People
Total deaths related to
210,000 People
Arizona during WWII
• Luke Air Force baseestablished 1941
• Known for advanced
flight training
• Largest fighter
training base in the
Air Corps during
Ira Hayes
• 1923-Born on Gila River
Indian Reservation in
Sacaton Arizona
• Joined Marines in 1942
• Iwo Jima survivor/Flag
• Became war hero
• Drew particular attention
because he’s Native
More Hayes
• Hated the attention, felt
• After the war, appeared in
John Wayne movie
Sands from Iwo Jima
(played himself)
• Alcoholic-50 arrests for
• Died 1955 on Gila River
Navajo Code Talkers
• Transmitted messages
formal or informally
developed codes built
upon their native
• Used in the Pacific
theater of war
• Served in Marine
• Complexity of the
language made it very
hard to understand
Minorities during the War
• A. Philip Randolph
– 1941; proposed march on
Washington, D.C.
– FEPC and nondiscrimination in
government and warrelated industries
• Job opportunities expand
– Migration of southern
– Mexican Americans
• Racial tensions
The Soviet Union
• Germany’s attack on the
Soviet Union had two major
– German forces were
bogged down on their
eastern front, in effect it
displaced German
resources from its western
and southern fronts and the
Middle East and North
– The Soviet Union served
an indispensable role in the
war but at tremendous cost
to their army and to the
Russian citizens.
– The Soviet Union would
mistrust the U.S./G.B.
Bombs, machines…
• Politics of Allied
bombing raids against
– Aid to U.S.S.R.’s front
against Germany
– Little military impact
– Dresden
• American industrial
– Over half of the
world’s products made
in the U.S.
…more bombs and military
• German military
– Fighter planes
– Rockets
– Tanks
• American military
– artillery power
– Tank development/end
of the war
– Mechanical genius of
ground troops
…the end is near; 1944
• Russian occupation of
eastern Europe
• American liberation of
– Steady eastern
advancement toward
• Allied liberation of
• Last German
offensive/Battle of the
War in Europe ends
• The issue of what to do with
Germany after the war
confronts the allies.
• The push towards Berlin is a
military decision political
– German retreat to Alps?
– Avoidance of American
– Timing and location of
– Soviet sacrifices justified
their 1st arrival into Berlin
Japan and the war in the Pacific
• End of 1944 victory is assured
but when?
– American bombing raids on
Japan; June, 1944
– The Philippines recaptured;
early 1945
– Japanese navy virtually
completely destroyed
• FDR is concerned about the
human cost of an American
invasion of the Japanese
• FDR; 1944 reelection/ Harry
Yalta Conference
• FDR, Churchill, and Stalin to
– FDR wants Soviet
assistance against Japan
• Russia obtains areas of
influence including
North Korea
– FDR wants Soviet
participation in the U.N.
• Partition of Germany/Berlin
• Polish question
• Eastern Europe
• United Nations
“Time to drop the bomb and live in
the ashes”
• April 12, 1945, FDR dies
• Harry Truman knew nothing of
Manhattan Project
• Debate on A-bomb
– Iwo Jima/Okinawa battles;
Kamikaze pilots
– Land invasion costs
– Soviet political realities
– Role of moderate forces in
– Political realities in the U.S.
Human Toll of War
• 16 million men and women
• 322,000 killed
• 800,000 wounded
• 12,000 never accounted for
• These were dads, uncles,
nephews, brothers, and sons
– Produced a generation of
great leaders and men who
actually knew what war
was like.
The Politics of War; the Cold War
• Our original intent was to
destroy Japan after Pearl
Harbor but Hitler’s declaration
of war upon the U.S. drew us
immediately into the European
• The major allies, the U.S.,
Great Britain and the U.S.S.R.,
were a calculating and many
times an alliance of mistrust
and misunderstanding.
• Our goal was to first defeat
Germany and hold our own in
the Pacific against Japan.
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