WORLD WAR II
WORLD WAR II The Greatest Generation; Whips the Depression; Saves the World • America has survived the Great Depression only to see the entire world rocked by the actions of Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo. • World War II pulled the U.S. out of the economic depression that had plagued the entire world for a decade. A vast military-industrial economic machine was created, employing millions of U.S. workers. The rise of Nazism, Fascism and Militarism • Treaty of Versailles – German reparations to Britain and France – Germany’s lack of access to its former industrial region – Germany’s forced acceptance of war guilt • World-wide Depression – European nations inability to pay U.S. loans – FDR’s distance from U.S./European cooperation Adolf Hitler • Adolf Hitler – An Austrian who would later promote the idea of the supremacy of the “German race” – Nazi party leader; coup of 1923 – Went to Jail for trying to overthrow the Government – Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Blamed Communists and Jews for WWI loss. Outline Germany’s rise to power – 1933; Chancellor of Germany (elected by one vote) • Parliament grants Hitler dictatorial powers – 1934; Hitler publicly announced his intention to disregard the Versailles Treaty Hitler’s goals • • • In defiance of the agreements at Versailles, Hitler begins a massive military and rearmament program. Spread of Nazi Propaganda billboards radio Wanted revenge for Germanys loss in WWI – Stimulated the German economy – Renounces reparations agreement that Germany had already ceased payments – Hitler plans to establish German world domination Anti-Semitism in Germany • Banned Jews and nonNazis from Government positions • Seized their property • 1935 Government assigned Jews a lower class of citizen • 1938 Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass” Throughout Germany…Nazis destroyed Jewish businesses and synagogues. 91 Jews killed, 7,500 Jewish businesses were demolished, 177 synagogues destroyed. Fascism and Benito Mussolini • Fascism-Strong Government headed by one individual • Italy falls under the sway of Benito Mussolini and his fascist program of state and military domination of the economy. Mussolini, held in contempt by Hitler, would soon form an alliance with Hitler and engage in imperialistic designs on the world beginning with North Africa. • Mussolini would invade Ethiopia in 1935. • Joined Germany in 1936 to form Axis Powers Axis Powers • Germany • Italy Joins 1936 • Japan Joined 1941 Germany on the Move • 1936 German troops reoccupy the Rhineland. Defied the Treaty of Versailles • March 1938 Annexed Austria • 1938 Wanted the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia • Threatened war • Munich Conference- Leaders from France and Great Britain (Neville Chamberlain) met. Gave the Sudetenland to Germans in order to preserve peace • “Last territorial claim I have to make in Europe” -Hitler • March 1939- Seized the rest of Czechoslovakia Poland and Blitzkrieg • Joseph Stalin- leader of Russia • Nonaggression Pact-Germany and Russia would not attack one another and would divide Poland • Sept.1939 Germany invaded Poland. Overtaken in Month • Blitzkrieg- “Lightning war” Quick surprise strikes overwelming their opponent • Allied Powers-Britain and France declared war on Germany Germany Sweeps across Europe • 1940 German troops Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Northern France • Maginot Line-Fortified wall that France built along its border French troops behind the line France and Great Britain • • • • • • • • May 1940 Invaded France. In June- French surrendered. Went through the Ardennes Forest Soldiers fled to port town Dunkirk. French-British soldiers were trapped. Saved by the British Winston Churchill British Prime Minister Battle of Britain July 1940 Royal Air Force (RAF) Britain's elite air force fought off British Radar and Enigma (Code breaking device) helped Britain May 1941 Hitler called off the attacks Americans and Isolationism • As a result of W.W.I, the American people would view the growing militarism of Germany and Italy with suspicion but deeply resented the troubles that Europe was unable to resolve. • Between 1935 and 1937 Congress passed Neutrality Acts-illegal to sell arms or lend money to nations at war • 1939 “Cash and Carry” System-Allies buy U.S. weapons with cash and carry them back to Europe on their own ships More Isolationism • Roosevelt wins third term in 1940 • “Your boys are not going to be sent into foreign wars” • March1941 Congress passed Lend-Lease ActLoaned $7 Billion worth of weapons and supplies to Britain • 1941 Germany attacks Soviet Union. Broke the Non-Aggression Pact • 1941 Lend-Lease to Soviets U.S. Ocean Battle • Battle of the Atlantic-Control ocean trade • U.S. Navy escorted British Ships carrying U.S. supplies • Germans tried to stop trade from U.S. & Britain by sinking the ships with submarines and U-Boats • Sept. 4th Germans U-Boat fired on U.S. destroyer. • Roosevelt order to “shoot on sight” • Atlantic Charter-Between U.S. Britain wouldn’t acquire new territory work for peace after war Japan, the Pacific and Pearl Harbor • • Japan – Seeking domination of the Pacific/recover from the depression/need for natural resources – Invaded Manchuria; 1931/ League of Nations disapproves led to European imperialism by Germany & Italy – China; 1937 Nanjing Beijing Fell – Set sights on American controlled Philippines and Guam U.S. sent aid to China U.S. drifts into war in the Pacific • Japanese took over French Indochina-Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos July 1941 • U.S. embargoes oil and fuel and other goods to Japan; • By September 1941, after many additional materials were embargoed, only oil could be sent to Japan. Japan would not withdraw from China and seized French Indochina (Vietnam) in late 1940. • July of 1941, FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. Pearl Harbor “A day of Infamy” • Military leaders intercepted a coded message that said an attack was coming. But didn’t know when • December 7th. 1941 • Japanese conducted a surprise attack of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii • The attack lasted two hours More Pearl Harbor • 2,300 Americans died • 1,100 wounded • 19 ships sunk including U.S.S. Arizona • Next Day Roosevelt declared it “A day which will live in infamy” • Congress accepted his request for a declaration of war against Japan and its allies World War II Homefront THE HOME FRONT • • • 1940- Selective Training and Service Act-First peacetime draft in U.S. History At first 2135….then 18-38 16 Million Americans, 1 million African Americans. 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the military. Going to war; Mobilization – War Production Board 1942 • Centralized industrial planning to convert from a peacetime production economy to a war economy • regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel …and more mobilization • Agriculture demand-fed U.S. and Allies as well • Factories converted to military machine Built ships, planes, weapons • Production stopped on civilian items-automobiles, new houses, and new appliances • Unemployment disappeared • Long hours Sports and War • Ted Williams Boston Red Sox/ Pilot-Flight Instructor. Served in WWII and Korean War • Joe DiMaggio-New York Yankees/ Phys. Ed Instructor drawing $43,500 from the Yankees, trades in his salary for the $50 a month as an army enlisted man. • Bob Feller-Cleveland Indians • Hank Greenberg-Detroit Tigers • Joe Louis-Boxer Army private Wars cost money… • War bonds- Paid for from the public for war use • Taxes- 40% of the war was paid for with taxes – Taxes were raised – Tax base broadened and tax rates raised – First time middle class & lower class paid income tax – Corporate taxes and excess profits tax increased – 1st time that most Americans paid any income tax …and more money • Taxes paid under half of the cost of war; the rest was paid through deficit spending. • War led to virtually full employment and many twoincome families. Consumer demand down, savings rose, and a pent-up consumer demand would boost post-war spending habits. • Growth of national govt. • Business/government cooperation Patriotism • • • • The war, affecting the lives of millions of Americans, did not affect directly from a military standpoint the American people. Our country never suffered casualties or battles on the home-front. War time propaganda movies billboards-inspiring morale at home Office of War Information – Provided news to the public/obviously slanted War Bonds- type of a savings bond given for use during a war. Rationing • Rationing- of goods and materials for military use gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, and plastics • meat, sugar, butter, coffee, tires, shoes and clothing • Blackouts- throughout the nation save electricity and avoid being seen SOCIAL IMPACT of the WAR • Many Americans moved during the war from farms to small towns, from small towns to larger urban areas. Some estimates place the number as high as 15 to 18 million people moved during the war. • The primary motivation for most folks was the search for job opportunities, especially in defense-industry related jobs. • Folks generally moved north and west. Effects of the movements of Americans • Housing Shortage • -up consumer demand – Rationing – Shift from peace-time to war-time economy • Families, babies and sex – Marriage rates increased – Divorce rates rose significantly Women and the Workforce • • • • A increased labor demand allowed women many opportunities in defenseindustry related jobs that previously were to closed to them. Many of the new female workers were married. – Many men drafted into the services – Unemployment among men was virtually non-existent. Women worked for less wages for men doing the identical job. Rosie the Riveter-American Propaganda promoting female workers In 1940, only 10% of women who worked were employed by factories, but by 1944, the figure was up to 30%. Women in the Military • 300,000 Women worked in the armed forces • Army and Navy nurses served in combat areas • Organizations such as Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC), Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) were formed World War II Propaganda World War II Propaganda • Billboard, advertising, newsreels • Used to boost morale and inspire • Portray enemy as evil • Sell War Bonds • Ration Entertainment on the home front • Radio – Increase in news coverage of the war – Music entertainment – Serials • Movies – Almost 100 million viewers a week – Westerns, war movies – Movie previews showed news documentaries of the war World War II Europe North Africa Axis Invades North Africa • Sept.1940 Italy Invades Egypt to gain control of the Suez Canal. Fought British • Feb. 1941 British take 130,000 Italian prisoners • March 1941 Germany sends Erwin Rommel-”Desert Fox” leader of Afrika Korps German Tank Force to bail out Italians • June 1942 Germans would force British to Tobruk Libyan • Afrika Korps would advance further into Egypt German defeat in Egypt • Battle of El AlameinNovember 1942 British forces stopped Rommel. Led by British General Bernard Montgomery • Montgomery and Eisenhower forced out of Africa. • May 1943 Afrika Korps surrendered Allies Take Italy • Churchhill called Italy the enemy’s “soft underbelly” • June 1943 Allies took Sicily • Advanced to Italy’s mainland • Italy government overthrew Mussolini • Germans came in to save Italy, put Mussolini back in charge • By late April 1945, they drove the Germans out of Italy • April 27, 1945 Italian resistance fighters ambushed German truck outside of Milan. Mussolini was disguised as a German soldier. Shot him and hung him in downtown Milan Turning Points Europe • • • • • • • • 1942 Battle of StalingradGermany tried to take the city of Stalingrad. Harsh winter combat-coldest winter in 30 years Soviet reinforcements arrived and surrounded the German Army Supplies ran low on the Germans Axis lost 200,000 soldiers in the fighting Kursk- German loss in a tank battle Turning point in the war. Germans retreated back the Germany D-Day and France • • • • • • • • • • Operation Overlord-plan to re-take France Massive landing on the beaches of Normandy in northern France June 6, 1944 D-Day 150,000 Allied soldiers hit the beaches of Normandy Attack last months General George Patton broke through the German lines in July Allied forces attack from southern France and headed North Dwight David Eisenhower – Supreme Allied Commander of the forces in Europe The second front that the U.S.S.R. had been promised in 1942, leaving the U.S.S.R. the only force in Europe for over three years. Normandy and France Bombing of German cities Battle of the Bulge • Dec 1944 Hitler launched a counterattack in the West • Located in Ardenne Forest Germans attacked Allies in heavy snow • 77,000 U.S. casualties • Allies reinforcements arrived • Ended Germany’s ability to wage offensive war Victory in Europe • March 1945 Allies crossed the Rhine • Soviets advanced westward • April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide in an underground bunker in Berlin • May 8, 1945 Germany surrenders • Declared V-E (Victory in Europe) Day • April 12 1945 Pres. Roosevelt died of a stroke. • Harry Truman took over as President Pacific Theater Battle of the Coral Sea • May 1942 • Code breakers discovered Japanese planned to capture Port Moresby, New Guinea • Allies cut them off • New military strategy was used. Planes attacked the boats, not boats attacking boats. • Japanese planes sunk U.S. carrier Lexington and damaged Yorktown. • Allies had stopped the Japanese advance for the first time Battle of Midway • Island of Midway 1,500 miles west of Hawaii • Navy code breakers learned the Japanese planned to seize Midway. • Americans allowed Japanese to attack island, while they attacked the Japanese carriers • June 3 and 6, aircraft carrierbased airplanes • U.S. sunk four carriers…. lost one • Japanese was on the defensive for the remainder of the war Island-Hopping • • • • • • • • 1943 U.S. plan to conquer one Pacific island after another, moving closer to Japan. Attack islands that weren’t heavily defended but closer to Japan General Douglas MacArthurleader of the Pacific Campaign General MacArthur battled the Japanese on New Guinea Others on the Gilbert Islands Tarawa in Gilberts Marshall, Mariana, Volcano, and Bonin Islands Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas Battle of Guadalcanal • U.S. Military learned that Japan was building a huge air base on Guadalcanal. • August 7, 1942 with the help of Australia attacked Guadalcanal • Six months of fighting • Feb 1943 Battle was over Allied victory. Japan lost 24,000 of 36,000 troops. Liberating the Phillippines • Oct. 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf • Largest naval engagement in history • Japan risked its entire Pacific fleet. • They wanted to destroy the American fleet • Led by General MacArthur another U.S. win within four days • Allied forces advanced toward Manila Jan. 1945 Final Battles • Japanese refused to quit • Feb.1945 Battle for Iwo Jima 6,000 U.S. casualties 22,000 Japanese • April 1945 Battle of Okinawa three months of hard fighting • Japanese combated with the use of Kamikaze pilotsSuicidal missions crashing into Allied ships • Kamikaze pilots killed 4,000 Allied sailors • 110,000 Japanese troops died 80,000 civilians • Allies 11,000 dead 33,000 wounded • Kamikaze Holocaust • Holocaust-Hitler and Nazis’ attempt to exterminate Jews from Europe • 1938- Nazis wrote laws that stripped German Jews of their civil rights, jobs, and property. • Forced them to move or imprisoned the remaining. • Kristallnacht- Forced Jews to become refugees and move to other countries. • France, Britain, and United States closed their doors to further immigration. Holocaust • German expansion in Europe brought many more Jews under Hitler’s control • Thousands lived in France, Low Countries, and eastern Europe. • Millions lived in Poland and Soviet Union • Hitler and other highranking Nazis thought it was impractical to imprison everyone Other Ways • In German-controlled countries, Nazi’s uprooted Jews and forced them into urban areas called Ghettos. Ghettos were sealed off with barbed wire and stone walls. Germans hoped they would die of starvation or disease • Some formed resistance groups within the Ghettos. • Life in the Ghettos- Secret schools, theaters produced plays and concerts. • Germans used EinsatzgrupenGerman killing squads • 1941 Einsatzgrupen shot 33,000 • End 1941- they killed 600,000 Jews Wannsee Conference • Nazi officials met • Hitler grew impatient with the Ghetto situation. • Officials agreed on the “final solution to the Jewish question” • Genocide-Deliberate murder of an entire people • SS (Hitler’s elite security force) hunted down Jews town to town Concentration Camps • By mid-1942 Jews rounded up and brought to camps packed in railroad boxcars • Given a number, sorted by age, sex, and health • Physically fit Jews were sent to work slave labor in camp factories Concentration Camps Continued… • Women, children, elderly, weak and sick were sent to gas chambers • With the chambers, Nazis could kill as many as 6,000 people a day. • Performed Experiments on victims • Auschwitz-In Poland, largest extermination camp Concentration Camps Discovered • Allies began to liberate the camps in early 1945, many survivors were too weak or ill to move. • 6 Million Jews 2/3 of Jews living in Europe died • Gypsies, Slavs, political and religious radicals, homosexuals, the insane, the disabled, ill, and others were also killed. Jewish Death Toll Original Jewish Population Jews Killed Percent Poland 3,300,000 2,800,000 15% Soviet Union German Occupied 2,100,000 1,500,000 29% Hungary 404,000 200,000 49% Romania 850,000 425,000 50% Germany/ Austria 270,000 210,000 22% Surviving Japanese Internment Japanese Living in U.S. • 1941-125,000 people of Japanese descent lived in United States • Issei- Immigrants born in Japan • Nisei-Full citizens who had been born in the United States • After Pearl Harborcitizens questioned the loyalty of Nisei and Issei • Fear of spying or sabotage Japanese Prejudice • Most JapaneseAmericans lived in Hawaii and West Coast. 1941 125,000 lived in U.S. • Post-Pearl Harbor prejudice regarding Japanese-Americans • Americans were frightened • Propaganda depicted Japanese as “the enemy” and in a bad light Japanese Internment • Feb. 19, 1942 Roosevelt issued an executive order calling for the internment of Japanese Americans because they were considered a threat to the country. • Internment-forced relocation and imprisonment • March 1942-Military began rounding up “aliens” and shipping them to relocation camps. • Citizens sold their homes and businesses Internment Camps • Located mostly in West Coast in Military areas. • Japanese-feared they would help their home country through spying or sabotage • 2/3 of those interned were Nisei, native-born American citizens whose parents were Japanese Conditions • Cold nights Internees were not prepared • Cots for beds • 45 cents a day for food rations • Could stay with your families • Make-shift schools Japanese American internment policies in Arizona • Gila River, AZ Opened July 20, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak Population 13,348. • Poston, AZ - Opened May 8, 1942. Closed November 28, 1945. Peak population 17,814 Japanese in Military • Still volunteered for military service • Served as interpreters and translators Atomic Bomb Atomic Bomb • 1942 Allied scientists had working on a secret program to develop an atomic bombManhattan Project • Project headed by General Leslie Groves Chief Scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer • July 16, 1945 worlds first atomic bomb was released in the desert near Alamogordo, New Mexico • Melted the desert sand into glass for 800 yards in all directons • Truman warned the Japanese that unless they surrendered, they could expect a “rain of ruin from the air” • Japanese didn’t reply Atomic Bomb • President Truman-”the most terrible thing ever discovered” • Truman struggled with the decision to use the bomb • Truman’s advisers informed him that an invasion of Japan could cost the allies half a million lives • Battle of Okinawa influenced • 3 ½ years of fighting • U.S. Casualties 400,000 people Hiroshima • August 6, 1945 B-29 bomber Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima • Killed between 70,000 and 80,000 instantly • Thousands more died later because of burns and radiation poisoning Nagasaki • August 9, 1945 • Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki • Killed 70,000 instantly • September 2, 1945 Japan surrendered Impact of Bombing Ground Temperatures 7,000 F. Hurricane Force Winds 980 Miles per hour Energy Released 20,000 tons of TNT Buildings Destroyed 62,000 buildings Killed Immediately 70,000 People Dead by the end of 1945 140,000 People Total deaths related to A-Bomb 210,000 People Arizona during WWII • Luke Air Force baseestablished 1941 • Known for advanced flight training • Largest fighter training base in the Air Corps during WWII Ira Hayes • 1923-Born on Gila River Indian Reservation in Sacaton Arizona • Joined Marines in 1942 • Iwo Jima survivor/Flag bearer • Became war hero overnight • Drew particular attention because he’s Native American More Hayes • Hated the attention, felt guilty • After the war, appeared in John Wayne movie Sands from Iwo Jima (played himself) • Alcoholic-50 arrests for drunkeness • Died 1955 on Gila River Reservation Navajo Code Talkers • Transmitted messages formal or informally developed codes built upon their native languages • Used in the Pacific theater of war • Served in Marine divisions • Complexity of the language made it very hard to understand Minorities during the War • A. Philip Randolph – 1941; proposed march on Washington, D.C. – FEPC and nondiscrimination in government and warrelated industries • Job opportunities expand – Migration of southern blacks – Mexican Americans • Racial tensions The Soviet Union • Germany’s attack on the Soviet Union had two major effects: – German forces were bogged down on their eastern front, in effect it displaced German resources from its western and southern fronts and the Middle East and North Africa. – The Soviet Union served an indispensable role in the war but at tremendous cost to their army and to the Russian citizens. – The Soviet Union would mistrust the U.S./G.B. Bombs, machines… • Politics of Allied bombing raids against Germany – Aid to U.S.S.R.’s front against Germany – Little military impact – Dresden • American industrial machine – Over half of the world’s products made in the U.S. …more bombs and military hardware • German military superiority – Fighter planes – Rockets – Tanks • American military superiority – artillery power – Tank development/end of the war – Mechanical genius of ground troops …the end is near; 1944 • Russian occupation of eastern Europe • American liberation of France – Steady eastern advancement toward Germany • Allied liberation of Italy • Last German offensive/Battle of the Bulge War in Europe ends • The issue of what to do with Germany after the war confronts the allies. • The push towards Berlin is a military decision political implications. – German retreat to Alps? – Avoidance of American casualties – Timing and location of armies – Soviet sacrifices justified their 1st arrival into Berlin Japan and the war in the Pacific • End of 1944 victory is assured but when? – American bombing raids on Japan; June, 1944 – The Philippines recaptured; early 1945 – Japanese navy virtually completely destroyed • FDR is concerned about the human cost of an American invasion of the Japanese mainland. • FDR; 1944 reelection/ Harry Truman Yalta Conference • FDR, Churchill, and Stalin to meet – FDR wants Soviet assistance against Japan • Russia obtains areas of influence including North Korea – FDR wants Soviet participation in the U.N. • Partition of Germany/Berlin • Polish question • Eastern Europe • United Nations “Time to drop the bomb and live in the ashes” • April 12, 1945, FDR dies • Harry Truman knew nothing of Manhattan Project • Debate on A-bomb – Iwo Jima/Okinawa battles; Kamikaze pilots – Land invasion costs – Soviet political realities – Role of moderate forces in Japan – Political realities in the U.S. Human Toll of War • 16 million men and women served • 322,000 killed • 800,000 wounded • 12,000 never accounted for • These were dads, uncles, nephews, brothers, and sons – Produced a generation of great leaders and men who actually knew what war was like. The Politics of War; the Cold War Aftermath • Our original intent was to destroy Japan after Pearl Harbor but Hitler’s declaration of war upon the U.S. drew us immediately into the European front. • The major allies, the U.S., Great Britain and the U.S.S.R., were a calculating and many times an alliance of mistrust and misunderstanding. • Our goal was to first defeat Germany and hold our own in the Pacific against Japan.