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A neutron irradiation facility for space applications

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A neutron irradiation facility for space applications
A neutron irradiation facility for space applications
Experiment Units for Space Life Science
Workshop 8th June 2015
Roma ASI
Valfredo Zolesi
Kayser Italia S.r.l.
Via di Popogna 501
57128 – Livorno (Italy)
www.kayser.it
[email protected]
Introduction
Electronic components and systems
and
Living organisms in Space
are subject to the effect of
Cosmic radiation
Electromagnetic fields
Weigthlessness
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Electronic components
Electronic components are systems or physical
entities which affect electrons or their associated
field.
Among other: passive, active, diodes,
transistors, memories,….
Cosmic radiations have a deep impact . The
improvements of the technology allow today for
a decrease of gates physical dimensions, and as
a consequence a low power and high
frequency, but on the other side increasing the
probability of fault.
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Cosmic Radiation effects and countermeasures
There are typically three methods of reducing the vulnerability of
electronics to radiation damage:
 Rad-Hard by Design (RHBD)
 Rad-Hard by Shielding (RHBS)
 Rad-Hard by Process (RHBP)
 The effect of particles hitting the component (SEU – Single Event
Upset) can be a Bit Flip:
o Mitigation is often via a Triple Voting technique or EDAC
 Another important effect is a Latchup, when a short circuit is
generated by the particle:
o Mitigation is via an accurate design of the Power Distribution Unit
(PDU).
 Electromagnetic fields play also an important role, and are
normally mitigated by appropriate filtering. EMC and EMI Testing,
associated also to irradiation facilities, increases the confidence
level for long term missions.
 Gravity has no effect on electronic components, apart hot-spot due
to lack of convection.
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BIOPAN (1/2)
 Example # 1 (SEU):
A memory Module “RAMBO” in 1992 was the controller of BIOPAN Facility
attached outside the FOTON capsule. An HW Watch-dog and a triple voting
technique was implemented, and the memory was filled up with autocorrelation
code FAF320. After the recovery, the entire memory was downloaded and 8 bitflips where noted. The time tag was associated to the HK data, and the subsatellite point was identified as the South Atlantic Anomaly.
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BIOPAN (2/2)
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MATROSHKA
 Example # 2:
The Matroshka Facility was installed for one year outside the ISS Russian
segment. A CAN Bus had to be implemented for the communication between the
Facility (External) and the Russian (internal) computer. The requirement was for a
RAD-Hard CAN-Bus (not existing) and therefore the issue was solved
implementing the CAN Bus Core into a RAD-Hard FPGA.
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ENAs – Energetic Neutral Atoms
ENAs phenomenon:
ENAs are produced from charge-exchange of
energetic ions with the background neutral gas.
They can be collected remotely providing a plasma
remote sensing being not subject to magnetic field
giromotion.
Magnetospheric ENAs:
Planet’s magnetic field dominates the magnetosphere
and traps charged particles, which may be accelerated
up to very high energies. Trapped charged particles
gyrate about magnetic field lines, participate in drift
motion and form radiation belts. Processes in the
magnetospheric tail play an important role in the
transport of energized plasma toward the Earth, in the
auroral zone and in the so called "ring current“, during
magnetospheric disturbances caused by Sun activity.
The orbits of practically all earth-orbiting satellites pass
through the magnetosphere and could be subjected to
effects - (failure in the transmissions, Single Event
Upsets (SEU), Single Event Latch-ups (SEL),
degradation of solar cells) - due to this energetic plasma.
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ENAMISS
(fm.: Mitchell et al.,
Yosemite
2002
Magnetospheric
Imaging Workshop )
ENA imaging:
imaging of space plasmas in fluxes of
energetic neutral atoms (ENAs).
An innovation in the Space Weather field:
Development of an Energetic Neutral Atoms - ENA
sensor, namely ENAMISS, to be uploaded on the
International Space Station for continuous monitoring
of the inner magnetosphere at low and medium
latitudes, where geosyncronous satellites and many
other scientific and commercial satellites are orbiting.
Finally, an alerting service could be provided to
different kind of users (mainly the scientific community
and the commercial satellite operators).
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Living organisms in space
Life is a process where a group of elements are
organized in order to reach specific objectives
(decrease of entropy).
Among other:
 Bacteria
 Plants
 Yeasts
 Animals
 Mammalians
 Humans
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Reasons for life science experiments in space
Life science experiments in space are conducted in order
to study:
 the changes induced on biologic material as we know on
Earth when they are exposed to space conditions
(esobiology)
 the possibility of life (and precursors) developing and
transported from space to Earth (astrobiology).
Therefore we are looking to the possibility of surviving in
hostile environment and countermeasures to be adopted (
calcium loss, plant growth, genetic modifications…)
Today we know that cosmic radiation, electromagnetic
fields, temperature, pressure, and gravity level deeply
affect the organic life.
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Reasons for life science experiments in space
Life science experiments are conducted in bioreactors (EU –
experiment unit), which can be automatic or manually operated
by the crew, and inserted into a container (EC- Experiment
container) which is placed into an incubator controlling the
pressure and temperature. A centrifuge provides the 1 G level for
a number of EC.
On ground, the same experimental protocol is executed in
parallel on a control group.
Therefore, after the re-entry, we have three set of sample which
have been exposed to different conditions:
 In flight units, subject to cosmic rays and 0 G.
 In flight, subject to cosmic rays and 1 G.
 On ground, subject to 1 G.
It is therefore possible to correlate the effect of cosmic rays and
gravity.
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Future perspectives
 The insertion of dosimeters into the EC, could allow
ground testing with irradiation facilities, adding another
important experimental factor for comparison.
R3D-B2 instrument was a LIULIN-type
dosimeter situated inside the ESA Biopan5 platform to measure radiation dose and
flux outside the Foton M2 capsule.
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Planned to fly in 2015
CYTO
Breast cancer cells
Planned to fly in 2015
SCD
Planned to fly in 2015
NATO
Stem cells
Planned to fly in 2015
ENDO
SPHINX
Endotelial cells
RESLEM
ROALD
Planned to fly in 2015
T-Cell 2
NIH-1a
ANIMALS
YEASTS
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
BioS-SPORE
YING B2
YING B1
Saccharomyces
Mammalians
Amphibians
Planned to fly in 2015
CYTO
Breast cancer cells
Planned to fly in 2015
SCD
Planned to fly in 2015
NATO
Stem cells
ENDO
Planned to fly in 2015
SPHINX
Endotelial cells
RESLEM
ROALD
Planned to fly in 2015
T-Cell 2
NIH-1a
P-KINASE
Immune System cells
TRIPLELUX-A
Macrophage cells
STROMA
BM Mesenchimal stem cells
OCLAST
PITS
Osteoclast cells
MYO
Muscolar cells
THYRUD
Thyroid cells
Humans
Rodents
XENOPUS
Xenopus laevis
TRIPLELUX-B
Mytilus edulis hematocytes
SCORPI-T
Androctonus Australis
TARDIKISS
TARSE
Tardigrades
Arabidopsis-ISS
AT-SPACE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Photo-Evolution
Photo-II
Photo-I
Panarthropods
TRIPLELUX-C
recombinant Salmonella typhimurium
BASE-C
Rhodospirillum rubrum
BASE-B
C. metallidurans B. turingiensis P.Putida
BIOKIN-4
Xanthobacter autotrophicus
PLANTS
3-DISS
n-DOSE
Hi-DOSE
DIASPACE-2
DIASPACE
PARIDE
P-KINASE
BACTERIA
Dosimetry
Dosimetry
Biology experiment units
TRIPLELUX
Cells and Bacteria analyser
YING-B1
Yeast batch culture
YING-B2
Yeast solid culture
ROALD
T-lymphocytes
cell culture
BIOLAB
STROMA
2D BMSC
cell culture
KUBIK
PKINASE
Monocytes
cell culture
BASE-B
Bacteria anaerobic culture
BASE-C
Bacteria aerobic culture
XENOPUS
Xenopus tadpoles
aquaria
AT-SPACE
Arabidopsis
germination
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BIOKIN-4
Bacteria
aerobic culture
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SEN
Sensor package
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