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PERUGIA

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PERUGIA
PERUGIA: caratteri generali e
storia della città
PERUGIA: general aspects
and the history of the city
Prof.ssa Patrizia Sargentini
I.I.S. “Giordano Bruno” di Perugia
GENERAL ASPECTS
• Elevation: 493 m (1,617 ft)
• Total Population (30 September 2010): 168,066
• Patron saint: St. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St.
Lawrence
• PERUGIA is the capital city of Umbria region in the
centre of Italy, near the River Tiber. The city is
located about 164 kilometres (102 mi) north of Rome.
It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around
the area.
The history of Perugia:
the past and the present
The history of Perugia goes back to the OscoUmbri and Etruscan periods.
The city is also known as a university town, with
the University of Perugia (about 34,000
students) and the University for Foreigner
people (5,000 students).
There are annual festivals and events: the
Eurochocolate Festival (October), the Umbria
Jazz Festival (July) and the International
Journalism Festival (April).
PERUGIA as an important centre of the Italian Art
Perugia is a well-known artistic centre of Italy.
The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed
Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve near
Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio
in the Collegio del Cambio (the
Moneychangers’ Guild) with a beautiful series
of frescoes, one of the masterpiece of the
Renaissance; eight of his pictures can also be
admired in the National Gallery of Umbria.
Perugino was Raphael’s teacher, the great
Renaissance artist who produced five paintings
in Perugia (today no longer in the city) and one
fresco.
THE CITY SYMBOL: the GRIFFIN
Grifo di Perugia e Leone
nel Palazzo dei Priori
Stemma di Perugia
THE CITY SYMBOL: the GRIFFIN
The city symbol is the griffin,
which can be seen in the form of plaques and
statues on buildings around the city.
HISTORY
Perugia was an Umbrian settlement beginning from
the 9th century B.C., because the ancient people
of Osco-Umbri lived here, but it first appears in
written history as Perusia when it became one
of the twelve key cities of Etruscan Federation
around the 6th century B.C.. Etruscan Perugia,
with its massive city walls (IIIth century B.C.) ,
developed between the two hills of the centre
town: the Landone and the Sole hills.
The Etruscan Arch
The Etruscan Arch (IIIth century
B.C.) and the San Manno and
Volumni Hypogea are eloquent witness
to the Etruscan period.
The Roman Age and the barbarian invasions
In the 1th century B.C. the town fell under the
Roman rule: in 40 B.C. the city was burnt
during the struggle between Octavius and
Mark Anthony for the power. It was later
restored and rebuilt by the same Octavius (now
Augustus Caesar), who named the town
“Augusta Perusia” to emphasise his dominion.
In early Christian times the city expanded beyond
the Etruscan city walls. In 548 Perugia was
almost totally destroyed by Totila, the king of
Ostrogoti, a barbarian people.
THE MEDIEVAL AGE
In the 11th and 12th century, when the Byzantine
rule ended, the “Free Communes” began.
This led a radical change in urban planning.
The town layout assumed his typical star
pattern; there was also the building of
architectural gems like Palazzo dei Priori and
the Fontana Maggiore.
The two city Walls: Etruscan and Medieval
Palazzo dei Priori and Fontana Maggiore
THE MEDIEVAL AGE
In this period there were also administrative
changes:
• the development of the circle of the city walls,
that doubled in comparison to the Etruscan one;
• the division into the five historical quarters in
order to the five medieval Doors (Porte) of the
city: Porta Sole, Porta St. Angelo, Porta
Eburnea, Porta St. Susanna, and Porta St.
Pietro;
• the development of the fortified villages that
today still characterize the local landscape.
The medieval age
In this period (1266) the
prestigious University of
Perugia was also founded and
authorized in 1308 by the Pope
Clemente V.
Perugia under the rule of the
Lordships
Turbolent times followed under the rule of
various lords, from Biordo Michelotti to
Braccio da Montone.
In 1425 the town fell to Papal rule, though in
actual fact it was governed by the cryptolordship of the Baglioni dynasty.
Perugia under the rule of the Lordships
Houses of the
Baglioni family
into the Rocca
Paolina;
remains from the
distruction of the
Rocca of Pope
Paolo III Farnese
PERUGIA UNDER THE RULE OF THE
LORDSHIPS AND OF THE CHURCH
In 1540 there was the “salt war”: the
building of Rocca Paolina marked the
town’s defeat, with the Baglioni
district destroyed and partially
incorporated into the Rocca Paolina.
PERUGIA UNDER THE RULE OF THE
LORDSHIPS AND OF THE CHURCH
The Rocca
Paolina
before the
partial
distructions of
the popular
revolts of
1848 and
1859
THE RISORGIMENTO
Tensions with the Church were constant: in 1859
the town was sacked by the Pope’s army in
response to the local people’s revolt that led to the
partial destruction of the hated Rocca Paolina.
On November 4th, 1860 Umbria region was
annexed to the kingdom of Italy, that was united
for the first time at the end of the heroic period of
the Risorgimento. The name of the main square of
Perugia was dedicated to the memory of this
event.
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