Endocrine and Digestive System Notes
Endocrine and Digestive System Notes Function: To physically and chemically ingest, digest, and absorb food and nutrients. The path of food... 1) Mouth ingests and digests using teeth, tongue (physical) and saliva (chemical). 2) Esophagus transports food to stomach through peristalsis muscle contractions. 3) Stomach stores and digests food by contracting (physical) and with acid (chemical) 4) Small intestine digests (chemical) and absorbs food. 5) Large intestine absorbs water and vitamins and minerals. (chemical) 6) Anus eliminates unused wastes. • Other organs of the digestive system. Food does NOT pass through these: • Liver: produces bile for breaking down fats. • Gall bladder: stores the bile. • Pancreas: produces enzymes for breaking down starches. Nutrition • Nutrients: • proteins; growth and repair, breaks down into amino acids, examples are meats, nuts and fish. • carbohydrates; main source of quick energy, breaks down into sugars, examples are starchy foods like breads, pastas, grains. • fats; stored energy, breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol, saturated (butter) and unsaturated (oils) types. • water; needed for chemical reactions to take place in the cells. • vitamins; organic molecules to regulate processes. • minerals; inorganic molecules to regulate processes. Food guide pyramid Endocrine System: • Function: glands produce chemicals called hormones that regulate body activities. • Structure: • Hypothalamus secretes hormones that regulate other hormone levels. • Pituitary secretes hormones for growth, metabolism and menstrual cycle. • Thyroid secretes hormones for metabolism. • Pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate sugars in the blood. • Adrenals secretes epinephrine to increase heart rate, blood pressure and sugar release. Endocrine System: • Ovaries secretes estrogen and progesterone for egg production. • Testes secretes testosterone for sperm production.