Endocrine and Digestive System Notes

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Endocrine and Digestive System Notes
Endocrine and Digestive
System Notes
Function: To physically and chemically ingest,
digest, and absorb food and nutrients. The
path of food...
1) Mouth ingests and digests using teeth,
tongue (physical) and saliva (chemical).
2) Esophagus transports food to stomach
through peristalsis muscle contractions.
3) Stomach stores and digests food by
contracting (physical) and with acid
4) Small intestine digests (chemical) and
absorbs food.
5) Large intestine absorbs water and vitamins
and minerals. (chemical)
6) Anus eliminates unused wastes.
• Other organs of the digestive system.
Food does NOT pass through these:
• Liver: produces bile for breaking down
• Gall bladder: stores the bile.
• Pancreas: produces enzymes for
breaking down starches.
• Nutrients:
• proteins; growth and repair, breaks down into
amino acids, examples are meats, nuts and fish.
• carbohydrates; main source of quick energy,
breaks down into sugars, examples are starchy
foods like breads, pastas, grains.
• fats; stored energy, breaks down into fatty acids
and glycerol, saturated (butter) and unsaturated
(oils) types.
• water; needed for chemical reactions to take place
in the cells.
• vitamins; organic molecules to regulate
• minerals; inorganic molecules to regulate
Food guide pyramid
Endocrine System:
• Function: glands produce chemicals called
hormones that regulate body activities.
• Structure:
• Hypothalamus secretes hormones that regulate
other hormone levels.
• Pituitary secretes hormones for growth,
metabolism and menstrual cycle.
• Thyroid secretes hormones for metabolism.
• Pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon to
regulate sugars in the blood.
• Adrenals secretes epinephrine to increase heart
rate, blood pressure and sugar release.
Endocrine System:
• Ovaries secretes estrogen and
progesterone for egg production.
• Testes secretes testosterone for sperm
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